The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

SLC38A2  -  solute carrier family 38, member 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ATA2, Amino acid transporter A2, KIAA1382, PRO1068, Protein 40-9-1, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of SLC38A2

  • Synthesis of SNAT2 mRNA increased within 1-2 h after amino acid removal from HepG2 human hepatoma cells [1].
  • Hypoxia decreased expression of hATA1 and hATA2 in both trophoblast phenotypes [2].
  • Correlation between GM3/GD3 ratio and SAT-2 activity; (2), mammary carcinomas developed in MMTV/c-neu transgenic mice: accumulation of GM3-derived species [3].
  • The different ganglioside distribution seems to correlate with the tumour size; (3), Sarcoma Galliera-strain cells SGS/3A and normal syngenic murine fibroblasts FG: transformed cells exhibit a lower activity of sialyltransferases (SAT-1, SAT-2, SAT-4) compared to normal fibroblasts, suggesting a possible correlation with the ganglioside pattern [3].

High impact information on SLC38A2

  • In contrast, the response to hypertonic stress does not involve eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation, suggesting that SNAT2 expression can be modulated by specific signaling pathways in response to different stresses [4].
  • We also show that amino acid starvation caused a 2.5-fold increase in mRNA and protein expression from a reporter construct containing both the SNAT2 intronic amino acid response element and the SNAT2-untranslated region [4].
  • System A amino acid transporter (SNAT2) gene expression is up-regulated at the transcriptional level in response to amino acid deprivation [5].
  • Functional analysis of genomic fragments 5' upstream of the transcription start site, for both human and mouse SNAT2 genes showed that these regions exhibit promoter activity, but were amino acid unresponsive [5].
  • The SNAT2 AARE, along with a nearby conserved CAAT box, has enhancer activity in that it functions in an orientation and position independent manner, and it confers regulated transcription to a heterologous promoter [5].

Biological context of SLC38A2

  • Characterization of the amino acid response element within the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) System A transporter gene [1].
  • It is concluded that the up-regulation of SNAT2 is essential for the rapid restoration of cell volume after hypertonic stress [6].
  • In hypertonically stressed human fibroblasts transfection with two siRNAs for SNAT2 suppressed the increase in SNAT2 mRNA and the stimulation of system A transport activity [6].
  • Amino acid depletion was associated with an up-regulation of SysA activity, largely mediated through an enhancement of SNAT2 (Slc38a2) expression at both the protein and mRNA level [7].
  • System A, the Na(+)-dependent amino acid transport activity, is encoded by the ATA2 gene and up-regulated following partial hepatectomy (PH), and its competitive inhibition interferes with liver regeneration [8].

Anatomical context of SLC38A2


Associations of SLC38A2 with chemical compounds

  • On the contrary, if the transport activity of system A is adaptively increased by amino acid starvation in the presence of DRB, the increase of SNAT2 transporters on the plasma membrane is still clearly detectable and the transport change only partially inhibited [11].
  • We show that slices from injured cortex take up glutamine more readily than control slices, and an increased expression of the system A transporters SNAT1 and SNAT2 likely underlies this difference [12].
  • Photolytic release of free alanine results in the generation of significant transient current components in HEK293 cells expressing the ASCT2, SNAT1, and SNAT2 proteins [13].
  • Furthermore, in contrast to AS, transcription from the ATA2 gene was not increased by glucose deprivation [14].
  • Cortisol stimulates system A amino acid transport and SNAT2 expression in a human placental cell line (BeWo) [15].

Other interactions of SLC38A2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SLC38A2


  1. Characterization of the amino acid response element within the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) System A transporter gene. Palii, S.S., Thiaville, M.M., Pan, Y.X., Zhong, C., Kilberg, M.S. Biochem. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Hypoxia reduces expression and function of system A amino acid transporters in cultured term human trophoblasts. Nelson, D.M., Smith, S.D., Furesz, T.C., Sadovsky, Y., Ganapathy, V., Parvin, C.A., Smith, C.H. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Glycosphingolipid expression in solid tumours and transformed cell lines. Berra, B., Colombo, I., Monteggia, E., Montorfano, G., Moretti, S., Rapelli, S., Sottocornola, E. Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation and cap-independent translation. Gaccioli, F., Huang, C.C., Wang, C., Bevilacqua, E., Franchi-Gazzola, R., Gazzola, G.C., Bussolati, O., Snider, M.D., Hatzoglou, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is mediated by an intronic element. Palii, S.S., Chen, H., Kilberg, M.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. SNAT2 silencing prevents the osmotic induction of transport system A and hinders cell recovery from hypertonic stress. Bevilacqua, E., Bussolati, O., Dall'Asta, V., Gaccioli, F., Sala, R., Gazzola, G.C., Franchi-Gazzola, R. FEBS Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Impact of forskolin and amino acid depletion upon System A activity and SNAT expression in BeWo cells. Novak, D., Quiggle, F., Haafiz, A. Biochimie (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. ATA2-mediated amino acid uptake following partial hepatectomy is regulated by redistribution to the plasma membrane. Freeman, T.L., Thiele, G.M., Tuma, D.J., Machu, T.K., Mailliard, M.E. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Cloning of an amino acid transporter with functional characteristics and tissue expression pattern identical to that of system A. Sugawara, M., Nakanishi, T., Fei, Y.J., Huang, W., Ganapathy, M.E., Leibach, F.H., Ganapathy, V. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Primary structure, functional characteristics and tissue expression pattern of human ATA2, a subtype of amino acid transport system A. Hatanaka, T., Huang, W., Wang, H., Sugawara, M., Prasad, P.D., Leibach, F.H., Ganapathy, V. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. The synthesis of SNAT2 transporters is required for the hypertonic stimulation of system A transport activity. Franchi-Gazzola, R., Gaccioli, F., Bevilacqua, E., Visigalli, R., Dall'Asta, V., Sala, R., Varoqui, H., Erickson, J.D., Gazzola, G.C., Bussolati, O. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Modulation of epileptiform activity by glutamine and system A transport in a model of post-traumatic epilepsy. Tani, H., Bandrowski, A.E., Parada, I., Wynn, M., Huguenard, J.R., Prince, D.A., Reimer, R.J. Neurobiol. Dis. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Pre-steady-State Currents in Neutral Amino Acid Transporters Induced by Photolysis of a New Caged Alanine Derivative. Zhang, Z., Papageorgiou, G., Corrie, J.E., Grewer, C. Biochemistry (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. The mechanism for transcriptional activation of the human ATA2 transporter gene by amino acid deprivation is different than that for asparagine synthetase. Bain, P.J., LeBlanc-Chaffin, R., Chen, H., Palii, S.S., Leach, K.M., Kilberg, M.S. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Cortisol stimulates system A amino acid transport and SNAT2 expression in a human placental cell line (BeWo). Jones, H.N., Ashworth, C.J., Page, K.R., McArdle, H.J. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization and regulation of the gene expression of amino acid transport system A (SNAT2) in rat mammary gland. L??pez, A., Torres, N., Ortiz, V., Alem??n, G., Hern??ndez-Pando, R., Tovar, A.R. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. The glutamine commute: lost in the tube? Conti, F., Melone, M. Neurochem. Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. A comparison of three pulmonary artery oximetry catheters in intensive care unit patients. Scuderi, P.E., Bowton, D.L., Meredith, J.W., Harris, L.C., Evans, J.B., Anderson, R.L. Chest (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Placental system A transporter mRNA is not different in preeclampsia, normal pregnancy, or pregnancies with small-for-gestational-age infants. Malina, A., Daftary, A., Crombleholme, W., Markovic, N., Roberts, J.M. Hypertension in pregnancy : official journal of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities