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Gene Review

LILRB4  -  leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor,...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CD85 antigen-like family member K, CD85K, CD85k, HM18, ILT-3, ...
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Disease relevance of LILRB4


High impact information on LILRB4


Chemical compound and disease context of LILRB4


Biological context of LILRB4

  • ILT3 and KIRCI were in the same head-to-tail orientation as has been described for other KIR loci which may facilitate addition or loss of genes between different haplotypes [6].
  • 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends defined the putative transcription initiation site of the LIR-5 gene, which is TATA-less [7].
  • Studies of human heart transplant recipients showed that rejection-free patients have circulating TS cells, which induce the up-regulation of ILT3 and ILT4 in donor APCs [3].
  • Indeed, co-ligation of ILT3 to stimulatory receptors expressed by APCs results in a dramatic blunting of the increased [Ca2+]i and tyrosine phosphorylation triggered by these receptors [4].
  • The gene encoding HM18, in common with the genes for the human Fc receptor for IgA and the human NK cell inhibitory receptors, was localized to chromosome 19q13 [8].

Anatomical context of LILRB4

  • Successful prokaryotic generation of correctly folded LIR-5 in high levels has implications for production of other LRC receptors and should greatly facilitate attempts to define the structure and ligands of this important regulator of dendritic cell function [1].
  • In contrast, addition of soluble ILT3 or overexpression of ILT3 in cocultures significantly reduced T cell proliferation [9].
  • IL-10 inhibits endothelium-dependent T cell costimulation by up-regulation of ILT3/4 in human vascular endothelial cells [9].
  • Tolerogenic antigen presenting cells (APC) are characterized by high expression of the inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4 [10].
  • We have engineered ILT3 and ILT4 cytoplasmic deletion mutants (ILT3delta and ILT4delta), which were transfected in the dendritic-like cell line KG1, to investigate ILT3 and ILT4's capacity to signal extracellularly [10].

Associations of LILRB4 with chemical compounds

  • The 1.6-kbp cDNA, HM18, predicts a 49-kDa type 1 integral membrane protein that, like mouse gp49B1, contains two extracellular C2 type Ig superfamily domains and two consensus immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs in the cytoplasmic domain [8].
  • Here we show an in vivo correlate of the increased ILT3 expression on DCs in healing psoriatic lesions following topical treatment with the 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) analog calcipotriol [11].

Regulatory relationships of LILRB4


Other interactions of LILRB4

  • In conclusion, the T cell costimulatory potential of human EC is markedly suppressed by IL-10 due to up-regulation of ILT3/ILT4, obviously not involving generation of Treg [9].
  • We also showed that Pg.LPS enhanced the tolerogenic properties of APCs and up-regulated ILT-3 and B7-H1 expression [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LILRB4


  1. Expression, purification, and refolding of the myeloid inhibitory receptor leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor-5 for structural and ligand identification studies. Garner, L.I., Salim, M., Mohammed, F., Willcox, B.E. Protein Expr. Purif. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Plasmacytoid monocytes migrate to inflamed lymph nodes and produce large amounts of type I interferon. Cella, M., Jarrossay, D., Facchetti, F., Alebardi, O., Nakajima, H., Lanzavecchia, A., Colonna, M. Nat. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Tolerization of dendritic cells by T(S) cells: the crucial role of inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4. Chang, C.C., Ciubotariu, R., Manavalan, J.S., Yuan, J., Colovai, A.I., Piazza, F., Lederman, S., Colonna, M., Cortesini, R., Dalla-Favera, R., Suciu-Foca, N. Nat. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. A novel inhibitory receptor (ILT3) expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells involved in antigen processing. Cella, M., Döhring, C., Samaridis, J., Dessing, M., Brockhaus, M., Lanzavecchia, A., Colonna, M. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase that hydrolyzes ceftazidime through a single amino acid substitution in the omega loop. Poirel, L., Naas, T., Le Thomas, I., Karim, A., Bingen, E., Nordmann, P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Isotypic variation of novel immunoglobulin-like transcript/killer cell inhibitory receptor loci in the leukocyte receptor complex. Torkar, M., Norgate, Z., Colonna, M., Trowsdale, J., Wilson, M.J. Eur. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Genomic organization of the human leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors within the leukocyte receptor complex on chromosome 19q13.4. Liu, W.R., Kim, J., Nwankwo, C., Ashworth, L.K., Arm, J.P. Immunogenetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular identification of a novel family of human Ig superfamily members that possess immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs and homology to the mouse gp49B1 inhibitory receptor. Arm, J.P., Nwankwo, C., Austen, K.F. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. IL-10 inhibits endothelium-dependent T cell costimulation by up-regulation of ILT3/4 in human vascular endothelial cells. Gleissner, C.A., Zastrow, A., Klingenberg, R., Kluger, M.S., Konstandin, M., Celik, S., Haemmerling, S., Shankar, V., Giese, T., Katus, H.A., Dengler, T.J. Eur. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Immunosuppressive activity of recombinant ILT3. Vlad, G., Liu, Z., Zhang, Q.Y., Cortesini, R., Suciu-Foca, N. Int. Immunopharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of the inhibitory receptor ILT3 on dendritic cells is dispensable for induction of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Penna, G., Roncari, A., Amuchastegui, S., Daniel, K.C., Berti, E., Colonna, M., Adorini, L. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Aspirin-treated human DCs up-regulate ILT-3 and induce hyporesponsiveness and regulatory activity in responder T cells. Buckland, M., Jago, C.B., Fazekasova, H., Scott, K., Tan, P.H., George, A.J., Lechler, R., Lombardi, G. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Induction of tolerance by Porphyromonas gingivalis on APCS: a mechanism implicated in periodontal infection. Cohen, N., Morisset, J., Emilie, D. J. Dent. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of ILT3 gene expression by processing of precursor transcripts in human endothelial cells. Kim-Schulze, S., Seki, T., Vlad, G., Scotto, L., Fan, J., Colombo, P.C., Liu, J., Cortesini, R., Suciu-Foca, N. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. (2006) [Pubmed]
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