The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

vanB  -  D-alanine--D-lactate ligase

Enterococcus faecalis V583

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of vanB


High impact information on vanB

  • The vanB gene cluster confers resistance to vancomycin but not to the related antibiotic teicoplanin, as the VanRB SB two-component regulatory system triggers expression of the glycopeptide resistance genes only in response to vancomycin [3].
  • These data demonstrate functionality of the Tn1549-like element and attest that the transfer of the vanB operon between enterococci and human commensal anaerobes occurs in the intestinal environment [4].
  • No isolates tested were resistant to nitrofurantoin (MIC, >/=128 microg/ml), including vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolates with vanA- and vanB-positive genotypes and vancomycin-resistant E. gallinarum isolates [5].
  • Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a 5,180-bp vanS(B)-vanX(B) long-PCR fragment of the vanB cluster showed the loss of HaeII restriction sites in vanS(B), vanW, and vanX(B) in strains containing a vanB2 ligase gene [6].
  • Enterococcus faecalis strain WCH9 displays a moderate level of resistance to vancomycin (MIC = 16 microgram/ml) and full susceptibility to teicoplanin but is negative by PCR analysis using primers specific for all known enterococcal vancomycin resistance genotypes (vanA, vanB, vanC, vanD, and vanE) [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of vanB

  • The vanB gene of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis V583 is structurally related to genes encoding D-Ala:D-Ala ligases and glycopeptide-resistance proteins VanA and VanC [8].

Biological context of vanB

  • The isolates containing the vanB gene exhibited between 0 and 41 base pair changes per 801 bp studied when the vanB sequences were compared to that of the reference strain Enterococcus faecalis V583 [1].
  • The majority (77.8%) of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolates displayed the VanA phenotype, and 538 of these 616 (87.3%) isolates were PCR-positive for vanA; the vanB genotype was detected in 78 (12.7%) isolates [9].
  • The plasmid hybridized with probes for the vanB and aac6'aph2" resistance genes [10].
  • A 64-kb genetic element harboring a vanB vancomycin-resistance (VmR) gene cluster was shown to translocate from the chromosome of Enterococcus faecalis BM4281 into the hemolysin (Hly) plasmid, pIP964 [11].
  • SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: To our knowledge, this is the first report of enterococcal microflora in bryndza cheese and its evaluation for the presence of vanA and vanB genes as well as virulence determinants [12].

Associations of vanB with chemical compounds

  • Clinical laboratories must be able to differentiate between enterococci possessing acquired resistance to vancomycin (vanA and vanB genotypes) from those that are inherently resistant (vanC1 and vanC2/C3 genotypes) [13].
  • The vanA isolates were found to be significantly more susceptible to chlorhexidine (4%) than the vanB isolates (300 s; P = 0.024) [14].
  • This protocol could be used to facilitate the detection and identification of predictable S. aureus or methicillin-resistant strains carrying vanA or vanB [15].
  • Of the E. faecium isolates, 75% were susceptible to teicoplanin (vanB phenotype) and most were resistant to penicillin (94%) and ampicillin (94%) [16].
  • In the present study, we developed a PCR protocol for simultaneous detection of enterococcal vanA and vanB genes, the staphylococcal methicillin and mupirocin resistance markers mecA and ileS-2, and identification of S. aureus [15].

Other interactions of vanB

  • Our results show that the vancomycin resistance determinant in L. rhamnosus GG is not closely related to enterococcal van genes, since no PCR product was amplified in L. rhamnosus GG with any of the three sets of vanA primers used, and enterococcal vanA, vanB, vnH, vanX, vanZ, vanY, vanS and vanR genes did not hybridize with DNA of L. rhamnosus GG [17].
  • PCR was also used for assessment of presence of vanA and vanB genes and virulence determinants gelE, agg and cytolysin genes namely: cylL(L), cylL(S), cylM, cylB and cylA [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of vanB


  1. DNA sequence variation within vanA, vanB, vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes of clinical Enterococcus isolates. Patel, R., Uhl, J.R., Kohner, P., Hopkins, M.K., Steckelberg, J.M., Kline, B., Cockerill, F.R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in the genus Streptococcus: characterization of a vanB transferable determinant in Streptococcus bovis. Poyart, C., Pierre, C., Quesne, G., Pron, B., Berche, P., Trieu-Cuot, P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Single-cell analysis of glycopeptide resistance gene expression in teicoplanin-resistant mutants of a VanB-type Enterococcus faecalis. Baptista, M., Rodrigues, P., Depardieu, F., Courvalin, P., Arthur, M. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Transfer of vancomycin resistance transposon Tn1549 from Clostridium symbiosum to Enterococcus spp. in the gut of gnotobiotic mice. Launay, A., Ballard, S.A., Johnson, P.D., Grayson, M.L., Lambert, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Nitrofurantoin is active against vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Zhanel, G.G., Hoban, D.J., Karlowsky, J.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification and characterization of vanB2 glycopeptide resistance elements in enterococci isolated in Scotland. McGregor, K.F., Young, H.K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Genetic characterization of vanG, a novel vancomycin resistance locus of Enterococcus faecalis. McKessar, S.J., Berry, A.M., Bell, J.M., Turnidge, J.D., Paton, J.C. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. The vanB gene of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis V583 is structurally related to genes encoding D-Ala:D-Ala ligases and glycopeptide-resistance proteins VanA and VanC. Evers, S., Sahm, D.F., Courvalin, P. Gene (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Antibiotic activity against urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE): results from the 2002 North American Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci Susceptibility Study (NAVRESS). Zhanel, G.G., Laing, N.M., Nichol, K.A., Palatnick, L.P., Noreddin, A., Hisanaga, T., Johnson, J.L., Hoban, D.J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Linkage of vancomycin and high-level gentamicin resistance genes on the same plasmid in a clinical isolate of Enterococcus faecalis. Woodford, N., Jones, B.L., Baccus, Z., Ludlam, H.A., Brown, D.F. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of Tn1547, a composite transposon flanked by the IS16 and IS256-like elements, that confers vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis BM4281. Quintiliani, R., Courvalin, P. Gene (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification and characterization of enterococci from bryndza cheese. Jurkovic, D., Krizková, L., Dusinský, R., Belicová, A., Sojka, M., Krajcovic, J., Ebringer, L. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Comparison of phenotypic methods to identify enterococci intrinsically resistant to vancomycin (VanC VRE). Ramotar, K., Woods, W., Larocque, L., Toye, B. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Efficacy of hand disinfectants against vancomycin-resistant enterococci in vitro. Kampf, G., Höfer, M., Wendt, C. J. Hosp. Infect. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of enterococcal genes vanA and vanB and staphylococcal genes mecA, ileS-2 and femB. Ramos-Trujillo, E., Pérez-Roth, E., Méndez-Alvarez, S., Claverie-Martín, F. Int. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Taiwan. Hsueh, P.R., Wu, J.J., Lu, J.J., Teng, L.J., Luh, K.T. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Vancomycin resistance factor of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in relation to enterococcal vancomycin resistance (van) genes. Tynkkynen, S., Singh, K.V., Varmanen, P. Int. J. Food Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Enterococcal infections with special reference to phenotypic characterization & drug resistance. Karmarkar, M.G., Gershom, E.S., Mehta, P.R. Indian J. Med. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular and epidemiological study of the first outbreak of vanB type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Japan. Oana, n.u.l.l., Kawakami, Y., Ohnishi, M., Ishikawa, M., Hirota, M., Tozuka, M., Atarashi, K., Baba, K., Fujiki, K., Okazaki, M., Honda, T., Hayashi, T. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities