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Gene Review

Eed  -  embryonic ectoderm development

Mus musculus

Synonyms: ENSMUSG00000039373, Polycomb protein EED, l(7)5Rn, l7Rn5, lusk
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High impact information on Eed


Biological context of Eed

  • The early lethal phenotype is reminiscent of that of the PcG-gene knockouts Eed and Ezh2, which belong to a separate functional PcG group and PcG protein complex [5].
  • Here we show that Eed and a second Polycomb group protein, Enx1, are directly localized to the inactive X chromosome in XX trophoblast stem (TS) cells [6].
  • The association of Eed/Enx1 complexes is mitotically stable, suggesting a mechanism for the maintenance of imprinted X inactivation in these cells [6].
  • To determine whether Eed is also required for regulating homeotic genes, a later acting eedhypomorph mutation was analyzed [7].
  • In the mouse, the embryonic ectoderm development (eed) region is defined by deletions encompassing the albino (c) locus of chromosome 7 [8].

Anatomical context of Eed

  • Eed is a component of a histone-methyltransferase complex that is thought to contribute to stable silencing in undifferentiated cells due to its enrichment on the inactive X-chromosome in cells of the early mouse embryo and in stem cells of the extra-embryonic trophectoderm lineage [9].
  • This phenotypic effect on growth could be attributed to the asymmetric localisation of the Ezh2/Eed complex and the associated histone methylation pattern to the maternal genome, which is disrupted in Ezh2 mutant zygotes [10].
  • Mouse embryos homozygous for the allele eed(l7Rn5-3354SB) of the Polycomb Group gene embryonic ectoderm development (eed) display a gastrulation defect in which epiblast cells move through the streak and form extraembryonic mesoderm derivatives at the expense of development of the embryo proper [11].

Associations of Eed with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Eed

  • Positioning of fit1 between deletion breakpoints, and the isolation and mapping of a DNA probe proximal to it, should facilitate the cloning and molecular characterization of fit1, as well as of the eed locus and the tightly linked l(7)5Rn and l(7)6Rn loci [14].
  • However, functional Ring1b is recruited by Xist and mediates ubiquitination of histone H2A in Eed deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells, which lack histone H3 lysine 27 tri-methylation [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Eed


  1. Imprinting along the Kcnq1 domain on mouse chromosome 7 involves repressive histone methylation and recruitment of Polycomb group complexes. Umlauf, D., Goto, Y., Cao, R., Cerqueira, F., Wagschal, A., Zhang, Y., Feil, R. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Genome imprinting regulated by the mouse Polycomb group protein Eed. Mager, J., Montgomery, N.D., de Villena, F.P., Magnuson, T. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Imprinted X inactivation maintained by a mouse Polycomb group gene. Wang, J., Mager, J., Chen, Y., Schneider, E., Cross, J.C., Nagy, A., Magnuson, T. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Functional antagonism of the Polycomb-Group genes eed and Bmi1 in hemopoietic cell proliferation. Lessard, J., Schumacher, A., Thorsteinsdottir, U., van Lohuizen, M., Magnuson, T., Sauvageau, G. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Rnf2 (Ring1b) deficiency causes gastrulation arrest and cell cycle inhibition. Voncken, J.W., Roelen, B.A., Roefs, M., de Vries, S., Verhoeven, E., Marino, S., Deschamps, J., van Lohuizen, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Mitotically stable association of polycomb group proteins eed and enx1 with the inactive x chromosome in trophoblast stem cells. Mak, W., Baxter, J., Silva, J., Newall, A.E., Otte, A.P., Brockdorff, N. Curr. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The mouse PcG gene eed is required for Hox gene repression and extraembryonic development. Wang, J., Mager, J., Schnedier, E., Magnuson, T. Mamm. Genome (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Physical localization of eed: a region of mouse chromosome 7 required for gastrulation. Holdener, B.C., Thomas, J.W., Schumacher, A., Potter, M.D., Rinchik, E.M., Sharan, S.K., Magnuson, T. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. The Polycomb group protein Eed protects the inactive X-chromosome from differentiation-induced reactivation. Kalantry, S., Mills, K.C., Yee, D., Otte, A.P., Panning, B., Magnuson, T. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Consequences of the depletion of zygotic and embryonic enhancer of zeste 2 during preimplantation mouse development. Erhardt, S., Su, I.H., Schneider, R., Barton, S., Bannister, A.J., Perez-Burgos, L., Jenuwein, T., Kouzarides, T., Tarakhovsky, A., Surani, M.A. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Cell and tissue requirements for the gene eed during mouse gastrulation and organogenesis. Morin-Kensicki, E.M., Faust, C., LaMantia, C., Magnuson, T. Genesis (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of histone H3 lysine 27 methylation in X inactivation. Plath, K., Fang, J., Mlynarczyk-Evans, S.K., Cao, R., Worringer, K.A., Wang, H., de la Cruz, C.C., Otte, A.P., Panning, B., Zhang, Y. Science (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced prenatally lethal mutations define at least two complementation groups within the embryonic ectoderm development (eed) locus in mouse chromosome 7. Rinchik, E.M., Carpenter, D.A. Mamm. Genome (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Genetic and physical mapping of the fitness 1 (fit1) locus within the Fes-Hbb region of mouse chromosome 7. Potter, M.D., Klebig, M.L., Carpenter, D.A., Rinchik, E.M. Mamm. Genome (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Recruitment of PRC1 function at the initiation of X inactivation independent of PRC2 and silencing. Schoeftner, S., Sengupta, A.K., Kubicek, S., Mechtler, K., Spahn, L., Koseki, H., Jenuwein, T., Wutz, A. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Interaction of mouse polycomb-group (Pc-G) proteins Enx1 and Enx2 with Eed: indication for separate Pc-G complexes. van Lohuizen, M., Tijms, M., Voncken, J.W., Schumacher, A., Magnuson, T., Wientjens, E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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