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Gene Review

His3:CG31613  -  CG31613 gene product from transcript...

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG31613, Dmel\CG31613, His3
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High impact information on His3:CG31613


Biological context of His3:CG31613

  • His2Av mutants show reduced acetylation of histone H4 at Lys 12, decreased methylation of histone H3 at Lys 9, and a reduction in HP1 recruitment to the centromeric region [4].
  • Here, we provide evidence for the sequential binding of PcG proteins at a Polycomb response element (PRE) in proliferating cells in which the sequence-specific DNA binding Pho and Phol proteins directly recruit E(z)-containing complexes, which in turn methylate histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3mK27) [5].
  • To understand the molecular mechanism of the methyl-Lys 27 histone code recognition, we have determined a 1.4-A-resolution structure of the chromodomain of Polycomb in complex with a histone H3 peptide trimethylated at Lys 27 [6].
  • Mouse PRC2 (mPRC2) has been implicated in X inactivation, as mPRC2 proteins transiently accumulate on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) at the onset of X inactivation to methylate histone H3 lysine 27 (H3-K27) [7].
  • Recently, one mechanism of HP1 chromosome association was revealed; the amino-terminal chromo domain of HP1 interacts with methylated lysine nine of histone H3, consistent with the histone code hypothesis [8].

Anatomical context of His3:CG31613


Associations of His3:CG31613 with chemical compounds

  • We show that this complex contains a methyltransferase activity that methylates lysine 9 and lysine 27 of histone H3, but the activity is lost when the E(Z) SET domain is mutated [13].
  • Surprisingly, whereas localization of centromere proteins is unaltered, the focal, G(2)-specific distribution of phosphorylated histone H3 at serine 10 (phosH3) is dispersed in these cells [14].
  • Matching patterns of permanganate reactivity are also observed for a non-heat shock promoter, the histone H3 promoter [15].
  • These stress-induced changes in the methylation level of the N-terminal proline residue of histone H2B and shift in the methylation sites of histone H3 may be involved in the restructuration of chromatin accompanying the inactivation of normal genes in response to stress [16].
  • We found that this enzyme is an arginine-directed kinase that can phosphorylate histone H3 at serines 10 and 28 in vitro, suggesting that human Aurora-B is a mitotic histone H3 kinase [17].

Physical interactions of His3:CG31613


Enzymatic interactions of His3:CG31613


Regulatory relationships of His3:CG31613


Other interactions of His3:CG31613

  • Recombinant complexes containing ESCL in place of ESC can methylate histone H3 with activity levels, and lysine specificity for K27, similar to that of the ESC-containing complex [24].
  • Full-length dSU(VAR)3-9 specifically methylates lysine 9 within histone H3 on peptides, on intact histones, and, to a lesser extent, on nucleosomes [25].
  • A similar mechanism in heterochromatin assembly is mediated by HP1, a chromodomain protein that binds to histone H3 methylated at Lys 9 [6].
  • Stable transcriptional repression did not correlate with maintenance of YY1 or Polycomb DNA binding, but did correlate with persistence of histone H3 methylation on lysine 27 [26].
  • In vitro binding assay results indicate that the MRG15 chromo domain can bind to methylated Lys36, but not methylated Lys4, Lys9 and Lys27 of histone H3 [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of His3:CG31613


  1. Genome-wide profiling of PRC1 and PRC2 Polycomb chromatin binding in Drosophila melanogaster. Tolhuis, B., de Wit, E., Muijrers, I., Teunissen, H., Talhout, W., van Steensel, B., van Lohuizen, M. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Acetylation in histone H3 globular domain regulates gene expression in yeast. Xu, F., Zhang, K., Grunstein, M. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Epigenetic regulation of telomere length in mammalian cells by the Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 histone methyltransferases. García-Cao, M., O'Sullivan, R., Peters, A.H., Jenuwein, T., Blasco, M.A. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. The role of histone H2Av variant replacement and histone H4 acetylation in the establishment of Drosophila heterochromatin. Swaminathan, J., Baxter, E.M., Corces, V.G. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Hierarchical recruitment of polycomb group silencing complexes. Wang, L., Brown, J.L., Cao, R., Zhang, Y., Kassis, J.A., Jones, R.S. Mol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Structural basis for specific binding of Polycomb chromodomain to histone H3 methylated at Lys 27. Min, J., Zhang, Y., Xu, R.M. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Developmentally regulated alterations in Polycomb repressive complex 1 proteins on the inactive X chromosome. Plath, K., Talbot, D., Hamer, K.M., Otte, A.P., Yang, T.P., Jaenisch, R., Panning, B. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Does heterochromatin protein 1 always follow code? Li, Y., Kirschmann, D.A., Wallrath, L.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Epigenome changes in active and inactive polycomb-group-controlled regions. Breiling, A., O'Neill, L.P., D'Eliseo, D., Turner, B.M., Orlando, V. EMBO Rep. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. A noncoding RNA is required for the repression of RNApolII-dependent transcription in primordial germ cells. Martinho, R.G., Kunwar, P.S., Casanova, J., Lehmann, R. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Drosophila Incenp is required for cytokinesis and asymmetric cell division during development of the nervous system. Chang, C.J., Goulding, S., Adams, R.R., Earnshaw, W.C., Carmena, M. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Naturally occurring testis-specific histone H3 antisense transcripts in Drosophila. Akhmanova, A., Kremer, H., Miedema, K., Hennig, W. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Drosophila enhancer of Zeste/ESC complexes have a histone H3 methyltransferase activity that marks chromosomal Polycomb sites. Czermin, B., Melfi, R., McCabe, D., Seitz, V., Imhof, A., Pirrotta, V. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Structure-function analysis of SUV39H1 reveals a dominant role in heterochromatin organization, chromosome segregation, and mitotic progression. Melcher, M., Schmid, M., Aagaard, L., Selenko, P., Laible, G., Jenuwein, T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Analyses of promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II on the hsp70 heat shock gene promoter in a Drosophila nuclear extract. Li, B., Weber, J.A., Chen, Y., Greenleaf, A.L., Gilmour, D.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Methylation of Drosophila histones at proline, lysine, and arginine residues during heat shock. Desrosiers, R., Tanguay, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Aurora-B associated protein phosphatases as negative regulators of kinase activation. Sugiyama, K., Sugiura, K., Hara, T., Sugimoto, K., Shima, H., Honda, K., Furukawa, K., Yamashita, S., Urano, T. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells: interaction between histones and HP1 proteins. Nielsen, A.L., Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Ortiz, J.A., Remboutsika, E., Chambon, P., Losson, R. Mol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. A trithorax-group complex purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for methylation of histone H3. Nagy, P.L., Griesenbeck, J., Kornberg, R.D., Cleary, M.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Aurora-B phosphorylates Histone H3 at serine28 with regard to the mitotic chromosome condensation. Goto, H., Yasui, Y., Nigg, E.A., Inagaki, M. Genes Cells (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. The JIL-1 kinase regulates the structure of Drosophila polytene chromosomes. Deng, H., Zhang, W., Bao, X., Martin, J.N., Girton, J., Johansen, J., Johansen, K.M. Chromosoma (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Mutations in the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) hinge domain affect HP1 protein interactions and chromosomal distribution. Badugu, R., Yoo, Y., Singh, P.B., Kellum, R. Chromosoma (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Role of histone H3 lysine 9 methylation in epigenetic control of heterochromatin assembly. Nakayama , J., Rice, J.C., Strahl, B.D., Allis, C.D., Grewal, S.I. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Alternative ESC and ESC-like subunits of a polycomb group histone methyltransferase complex are differentially deployed during Drosophila development. Wang, L., Jahren, N., Vargas, M.L., Andersen, E.F., Benes, J., Zhang, J., Miller, E.L., Jones, R.S., Simon, J.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. The N-terminus of Drosophila SU(VAR)3-9 mediates dimerization and regulates its methyltransferase activity. Eskeland, R., Czermin, B., Boeke, J., Bonaldi, T., Regula, J.T., Imhof, A. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Transient requirements of YY1 expression for PcG transcriptional repression and phenotypic rescue. Srinivasan, L., Pan, X., Atchison, M.L. J. Cell. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Structure of human MRG15 chromo domain and its binding to Lys36-methylated histone H3. Zhang, P., Du, J., Sun, B., Dong, X., Xu, G., Zhou, J., Huang, Q., Liu, Q., Hao, Q., Ding, J. Nucleic Acids Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Fission yeast CENP-B homologs nucleate centromeric heterochromatin by promoting heterochromatin-specific histone tail modifications. Nakagawa, H., Lee, J.K., Hurwitz, J., Allshire, R.C., Nakayama, J., Grewal, S.I., Tanaka, K., Murakami, Y. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Characterization of chicken CENP-A and comparative sequence analysis of vertebrate centromere-specific histone H3-like proteins. Régnier, V., Novelli, J., Fukagawa, T., Vagnarelli, P., Brown, W. Gene (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on transcriptional regulation of the hsp70 gene in Drosophila. Zhao, Y.M., Chen, X., Sun, H., Yuan, Z.G., Ren, G.L., Li, X.X., Lu, J., Huang, B.Q. Cell Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Control of mitotic entry after DNA damage in Drosophila. Jaklevic, B., Purdy, A., Su, T.T. Methods Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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