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vif  -  vif

Simian-Human immunodeficiency virus

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Disease relevance of vif

  • This strategy was demonstrated by inducing specific cleavage within a modified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vif mRNA in a cell-free system from human lymphoblastoid cells [1].
  • We then determined the structure and infectivity of vif mutant HIV-1 by using MDM exclusively both for virus production and as targets for infection [2].
  • The natural intravirion reverse transcriptase products were markedly reduced in vif mutant virions [3].
  • The productive infection of many susceptible human cells, including lymphocytes and macrophages derived from peripheral blood, by the pathogenic lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus type 1 requires expression of the virally encoded vif (for virion infectivity factor) gene [4].
  • The vif gene of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) encodes a late gene product that is essential for viral infectivity in natural target cells [5].

High impact information on vif


Chemical compound and disease context of vif

  • We introduced substitutions of leucine for cysteine residues in the vif gene of a full-length HIV-1 clone to analyze their roles in viral infection [7].

Biological context of vif

  • The smallest HIV-1 DNA region that conferred the complete phenotypic switch was a 284-bp NdeI-StuI fragment within the vif open reading frame [8].
  • Viral DNA was detected within hours of infection by both viruses, but the accumulation of vif-negative virus DNA was impeded in terms of both extent and kinetics [9].
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed a 35-bp deletion starting at nucleotide 218 in the N1T-E vif gene [8].
  • In this study, the effect of vif in the context of the HXB2 virus on virus replication in several CD4+ T-cell lines was investigated. vif was found to be required for replication in the CD4+ T-cell lines CEM and H9 as well as in peripheral blood T lymphocytes. vif was not required for replication in the SupT1, C8166, and Jurkat T-cell lines [10].
  • Cotransfection of a eucaryotic vif expression plasmid with N1T-E DNA complemented the N1T-E defect; rapid/cytopathic infection similar to that in N1T-A-transfected cells was observed [8].

Anatomical context of vif


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of vif

  • MDM infected with MDM-derived vif-negative HIV-1 were able to transmit the virus to uninfected MDM by cocultivation, confirming the infectiousness of this virus [2].
  • In addition, immunoblotting with an antiserum directed against the carboxyl terminus of gp41 revealed that gp41 was intact in cells infected with either wild-type or vif mutant HIV-1, excluding that Vif cleaves the C terminus of gp41 [7].
  • The coding potential of the vif open reading frame directly derived by nested PCR from uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA was conserved in all 50 individuals [12].
  • Epitope mapping of this mAb using overlapping hexapeptides derived from the vif peptide revealed that the motif recognized was PLPSVT [13].
  • All PRs with high viral load had a high ratio of active vif clones [14].


  1. Targeting RNA for degradation with a (2'-5')oligoadenylate-antisense chimera. Torrence, P.F., Maitra, R.K., Lesiak, K., Khamnei, S., Zhou, A., Silverman, R.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. vif-negative human immunodeficiency virus type 1 persistently replicates in primary macrophages, producing attenuated progeny virus. Chowdhury, I.H., Chao, W., Potash, M.J., Sova, P., Gendelman, H.E., Volsky, D.J. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Association of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif with RNA and its role in reverse transcription. Dettenhofer, M., Cen, S., Carlson, B.A., Kleiman, L., Yu, X.F. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Complementation of vif-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by primate, but not nonprimate, lentivirus vif genes. Simon, J.H., Southerling, T.E., Peterson, J.C., Meyer, B.E., Malim, M.H. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. The Vif protein of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses is packaged into virions and associates with viral core structures. Liu, H., Wu, X., Newman, M., Shaw, G.M., Hahn, B.H., Kappes, J.C. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Aberrant Gag protein composition of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vif mutant produced in primary lymphocytes. Simm, M., Shahabuddin, M., Chao, W., Allan, J.S., Volsky, D.J. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Cysteine residues in the Vif protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are essential for viral infectivity. Ma, X.Y., Sova, P., Chao, W., Volsky, D.J. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Recombinational analysis of a natural noncytopathic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolate: role of the vif gene in HIV-1 infection kinetics and cytopathicity. Sakai, K., Ma, X.Y., Gordienko, I., Volsky, D.J. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Efficiency of viral DNA synthesis during infection of permissive and nonpermissive cells with vif-negative human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Sova, P., Volsky, D.J. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Role of vif in replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in CD4+ T lymphocytes. Gabuzda, D.H., Lawrence, K., Langhoff, E., Terwilliger, E., Dorfman, T., Haseltine, W.A., Sodroski, J. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Diversity of the vif gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Uganda. Wieland, U., Seelhoff, A., Hofmann, A., Kühn, J.E., Eggers, H.J., Mugyenyi, P., Schwander, S. J. Gen. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vif gene in long-term asymptomatic individuals. Hassaïne, G., Agostini, I., Candotti, D., Bessou, G., Caballero, M., Agut, H., Autran, B., Barthalay, Y., Vigne, R. Virology (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular characterization of two Schistosoma mansoni proteins sharing common motifs with the vif protein of HIV-1. Khalife, J., Pierce, R.J., Godin, C., Capron, A. Parasitology (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Functional analysis of HIV-1 vif genes derived from Japanese long-term nonprogressors and progressors for AIDS. Sakurai, A., Jere, A., Yoshida, A., Yamada, T., Iwamoto, A., Adachi, A., Fujita, M. Microbes Infect. (2004) [Pubmed]
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