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Gene Review

CST1  -  cystatin SN

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Cystain-SA-I, Cystatin-1, Cystatin-SN, Salivary cystatin-SA-1
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Disease relevance of CST1


High impact information on CST1

  • Automated peptide sequencing data revealed that cystatin SA-I shares sequence homologies with salivary cystatin SN, except that it contains an additional octapeptide at its NH2 terminus [3].
  • Collectively, our data suggest that some of the diversity in salivary cystatins could be generated by expression of different members of a multigene family and by posttranslational proteolytic cleavage of NH2-terminal regions (cystatin SA-I to cystatin SN) [3].
  • This antibody recognizes a 116-kDa glycoprotein, which we have termed CST1, containing sugar residues that bind Dolichos biflorans lectin (DBA) [4].
  • CST1 is distinct from T. gondii antigen labeled with succinyl Triticum vulgare lectin (S-WGA) and represents the major DBA-binding component in T. gondii [4].
  • Thirty spots were sequence tagged, resulting in identification of six different proteins (lipocalin, lysozyme, lactotransferrin, zinc-alpha-2 glycoprotein, cystatin S, cystatin SN) that matched to entries in the SWISS-PROT database [5].

Biological context of CST1


Anatomical context of CST1


Associations of CST1 with chemical compounds

  • A new cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin SN, was purified from human whole saliva by chromatography with DE32, Sephacryl S200, and CM-Sepharose CL6B [11].

Enzymatic interactions of CST1


Regulatory relationships of CST1


Other interactions of CST1

  • This gene, which we name CST2, has the same gene organization as CST1 [6].
  • The CST1 product was detected in the tracheal glands and CST4 in the kidney and prostate [8].
  • Expression of type 2 cystatin genes CST1-CST5 in adult human tissues and the developing submandibular gland [8].
  • Data analysis of salivary protein composition showed a statistically significant correlation between the quantity of acidic proline-rich proteins (PRPs), lipocalin, cystatin SN and cystatin S, and samples from the caries-free group of subjects [decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT) = 0] [13].
  • These results provide direct evidence that HRG belongs to a supergene family that includes cystatin SN, SA and C, and kininogen, and also demonstrate high conservation of the intron-exon organization among this supergene family [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CST1


  1. Production of human salivary type cysteine proteinase inhibitors (cystatins) by an Escherichia coli system and partial characterization of recombinant cystatin S and its mutant (117 arginine-->tryptophan). Saitoh, E., Isemura, S. J. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Differential effect toward inhibition of papain and cathepsin C by recombinant human salivary cystatin SN and its variants produced by a baculovirus system. Tseng, C.C., Tseng, C.P., Levine, M.J., Bobek, L.A. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Purification, molecular cloning, and sequencing of salivary cystatin SA-1. Al-Hashimi, I., Dickinson, D.P., Levine, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Initial characterization of CST1, a Toxoplasma gondii cyst wall glycoprotein. Zhang, Y.W., Halonen, S.K., Ma, Y.F., Wittner, M., Weiss, L.M. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Establishment of the human reflex tear two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reference map: new proteins of potential diagnostic value. Molloy, M.P., Bolis, S., Herbert, B.R., Ou, K., Tyler, M.I., van Dyk, D.D., Willcox, M.D., Gooley, A.A., Williams, K.L., Morris, C.A., Walsh, B.J. Electrophoresis (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Human cysteine-proteinase inhibitors: nucleotide sequence analysis of three members of the cystatin gene family. Saitoh, E., Kim, H.S., Smithies, O., Maeda, N. Gene (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. The human cystatin C gene (CST3) is a member of the cystatin gene family which is localized on chromosome 20. Saitoh, E., Sabatini, L.M., Eddy, R.L., Shows, T.B., Azen, E.A., Isemura, S., Sanada, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of type 2 cystatin genes CST1-CST5 in adult human tissues and the developing submandibular gland. Dickinson, D.P., Thiesse, M., Hicks, M.J. DNA Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of full-sized forms of salivary (S-type) cystatins (cystatin SN, cystatin SA, cystatin S, and two phosphorylated forms of cystatin S) in human whole saliva and determination of phosphorylation sites of cystatin S. Isemura, S., Saitoh, E., Sanada, K., Minakata, K. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Formation of salivary-mucosal pellicle: the role of transglutaminase. Bradway, S.D., Bergey, E.J., Scannapieco, F.A., Ramasubbu, N., Zawacki, S., Levine, M.J. Biochem. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of a new cysteine proteinase inhibitor of human saliva, cystatin SN, which is immunologically related to cystatin S. Isemura, S., Saitoh, E., Sanada, K. FEBS Lett. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Functional aspects of the human salivary cystatins in the oral environment. Baron, A., DeCarlo, A., Featherstone, J. Oral diseases. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Two-dimensional electrophoresis study of in vitro pellicle formation and dental caries susceptibility. Vitorino, R., de Morais Guedes, S., Ferreira, R., Lobo, M.J., Duarte, J., Ferrer-Correia, A.J., Tomer, K.B., Domingues, P.M., Amado, F.M. Eur. J. Oral Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Human histidine-rich glycoprotein gene: evidence for evolutionary relatedness to cystatin supergene family. Koide, T. Thromb. Res. Suppl. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Purification of large quantities of human salivary cystatins S, SA and SN: their interactions with the model cysteine protease papain in a non-inhibitory mode. Baron, A., Barrett-Vespone, N., Featherstone, J. Oral diseases. (1999) [Pubmed]
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