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Gene Review

CST4  -  cystatin S

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Cystatin-4, Cystatin-S, Cystatin-SA-III, Salivary acidic protein 1
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Disease relevance of CST4

  • Production of human salivary type cysteine proteinase inhibitors (cystatins) by an Escherichia coli system and partial characterization of recombinant cystatin S and its mutant (117 arginine-->tryptophan) [1].
  • We conclude that the previously observed increase of cystatin activity in whole saliva in inflammatory periodontal disease is, at least in part, due to an increased glandular output of both the isoform cystatin S (pI 4.7) and the basic cystatin C (pI 9.0) [2].
  • Inhibition of the growth and cysteine proteinase activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis by human salivary cystatin S and chicken cystatin [3].
  • The absolute concentrations of albumin, cystatin C, cystatin S, total IgA and total protein, but not amylase, were increased significantly in both primary and secondary Sjögren's syndrome [4].
  • Based on these results we studied a possible change in the concentration of cystatin S, cystatin C, albumin, IgA, amylase activity, and cystatin activity in a whole and parotid saliva of 20 periodontitis patients as a consequence of periodontal treatment [5].

High impact information on CST4


Biological context of CST4


Anatomical context of CST4


Associations of CST4 with chemical compounds


Enzymatic interactions of CST4


Regulatory relationships of CST4


Other interactions of CST4


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CST4


  1. Production of human salivary type cysteine proteinase inhibitors (cystatins) by an Escherichia coli system and partial characterization of recombinant cystatin S and its mutant (117 arginine-->tryptophan). Saitoh, E., Isemura, S. J. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Cystatins S and C in human whole saliva and in glandular salivas in periodontal health and disease. Henskens, Y.M., Veerman, E.C., Mantel, M.S., van der Velden, U., Nieuw Amerongen, A.V. J. Dent. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Inhibition of the growth and cysteine proteinase activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis by human salivary cystatin S and chicken cystatin. Blankenvoorde, M.F., Henskens, Y.M., van't Hof, W., Veerman, E.C., Nieuw Amerongen, A.V. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Analysis of the concentration and output of whole salivary constituents in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. van der Reijden, W.A., van der Kwaak, J.S., Veerman, E.C., Nieuw Amerongen, A.V. Eur. J. Oral Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of periodontal treatment on the protein composition of whole and parotid saliva. Henskens, Y.M., van der Weijden, F.A., van den Keijbus, P.A., Veerman, E.C., Timmerman, M.F., van der Velden, U., Amerongen, A.V. J. Periodontol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Structure and expression of the gene encoding cystatin D, a novel human cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Freije, J.P., Abrahamson, M., Olafsson, I., Velasco, G., Grubb, A., López-Otín, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Isolation of six cysteine proteinase inhibitors from human urine. Their physicochemical and enzyme kinetic properties and concentrations in biological fluids. Abrahamson, M., Barrett, A.J., Salvesen, G., Grubb, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Newly identified proteins in human nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids: potential biomedical and clinical applications. Lindahl, M., Ståhlbom, B., Tagesson, C. Electrophoresis (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Human salivary cystatin S. Cloning, sequence analysis, hybridization in situ and immunocytochemistry. Bobek, L.A., Aguirre, A., Levine, M.J. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of two members (CST4 and CST5) of the cystatin gene family and molecular evolution of cystatin genes. Saitoh, E., Isemura, S., Sanada, K., Ohnishi, K. Agents Actions Suppl. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. New yeast genes important for chromosome integrity and segregation identified by dosage effects on genome stability. Ouspenski, I.I., Elledge, S.J., Brinkley, B.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Characterization and amino acid sequence of a new acidic cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin SA) structurally closely related to cystatin S, from human whole saliva. Isemura, S., Saitoh, E., Sanada, K. J. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of full-sized forms of salivary (S-type) cystatins (cystatin SN, cystatin SA, cystatin S, and two phosphorylated forms of cystatin S) in human whole saliva and determination of phosphorylation sites of cystatin S. Isemura, S., Saitoh, E., Sanada, K., Minakata, K. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Salivary cystatin SA-III, a potential precursor of the acquired enamel pellicle, is phosphorylated at both its amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions. Lamkin, M.S., Jensen, J.L., Setayesh, M.R., Troxler, R.F., Oppenheim, F.G. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of type 2 cystatin genes CST1-CST5 in adult human tissues and the developing submandibular gland. Dickinson, D.P., Thiesse, M., Hicks, M.J. DNA Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Salivary (SD-type) cystatins: over one billion years in the making--but to what purpose? Dickinson, D.P. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Immunofluorescence localization of cystatins in human lacrimal gland and in the exorbital lacrimal gland of the rat. Takahashi, M., Honda, Y., Ogawa, K., Barka, T. Acta ophthalmologica. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Functional aspects of the human salivary cystatins in the oral environment. Baron, A., DeCarlo, A., Featherstone, J. Oral diseases. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Salivary protein composition in epileptic patients on different medications. Henskens, Y.M., Strooker, H., van den Keijbus, P.A., Veerman, E.C., Nieuw Amerongen, A.V. J. Oral Pathol. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Salivary acidic proline-rich proteins in rheumatoid arthritis. Jensen, J.L. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. The effects of human salivary cystatins and statherin on hydroxyapatite crystallization. Johnsson, M., Richardson, C.F., Bergey, E.J., Levine, M.J., Nancollas, G.H. Arch. Oral Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Cystatins in human tear fluid. Barka, T., Asbell, P.A., van der Noen, H., Prasad, A. Curr. Eye Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Changes in submaxillary gland gene expression in F344 rats by multiple dosing of theophylline. Kajikawa, S., Kigami, D., Nakayama, H., Doi, K. Exp. Anim. (2006) [Pubmed]
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