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Gene Review

N  -  nucleocapsid protein

SARS coronavirus

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Disease relevance of N


High impact information on N


Biological context of N


Anatomical context of N

  • Group 1 antibodies recognized epitopes located slightly differently in N from those of group 2 antibodies, and a mouse hybridoma antibody resembling the former type was generated [8].
  • However, only seven of these (group 1) had sera which also reacted with the native N antigen expressed in SARS-CoV-infected Vero cells, N-transfected 293T cells, and tissues of infected SARS patients [8].
  • The N-specific IFN-gamma(+)CD4(+) T cells were mainly composed of CD45RA(-)CCR7(+)CD62L(-) cells, whereas IFN-gamma(+)CD8(+) memory T cells were mostly contained within CD45RA(+)CCR7(-)CD62L(-) cell population [9].
  • This region spanning amino acids 249-395 contains predominant B cell epitopes located at the C-terminus of N protein [10].
  • The full length NP could be expressed in E. coli at very high level within inclusion bodies [11].

Associations of N with chemical compounds

  • Furthermore, deletion of leucine rich region (220-LALLLLDRLNRL) resulted in the accumulation of N to the cytoplasm and nucleolus, and when fusing this peptide to EGFP localization was cytoplasmic, suggesting that the N may act as a shuttle protein [12].
  • In contrast, mutation of amino acid Gln-74 to an alanine, which does not affect the binding activity of the N-terminal domain, showed minimal, if any, detrimental effect on the infectivity of IBV [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of N


  1. The Nucleocapsid Protein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus Inhibits the Activity of Cyclin-Cyclin-dependent Kinase Complex and Blocks S Phase Progression in Mammalian Cells. Surjit, M., Liu, B., Chow, V.T., Lal, S.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Analysis of multimerization of the SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. He, R., Dobie, F., Ballantine, M., Leeson, A., Li, Y., Bastien, N., Cutts, T., Andonov, A., Cao, J., Booth, T.F., Plummer, F.A., Tyler, S., Baker, L., Li, X. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Subcellular localization of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. You, J., Dove, B.K., Enjuanes, L., DeDiego, M.L., Alvarez, E., Howell, G., Heinen, P., Zambon, M., Hiscox, J.A. J. Gen. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Crystal structure of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nucleocapsid protein dimerization domain reveals evolutionary linkage between corona- and arteriviridae. Yu, I.M., Oldham, M.L., Zhang, J., Chen, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nucleocapsid protein forms a dimer through its C-terminal domain. Yu, I.M., Gustafson, C.L., Diao, J., Burgner, J.W., Li, Z., Zhang, J., Chen, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Mass spectrometric characterization of proteins from the SARS virus: a preliminary report. Krokhin, O., Li, Y., Andonov, A., Feldmann, H., Flick, R., Jones, S., Stroeher, U., Bastien, N., Dasuri, K.V., Cheng, K., Simonsen, J.N., Perreault, H., Wilkins, J., Ens, W., Plummer, F., Standing, K.G. Mol. Cell Proteomics (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. The SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein induces actin reorganization and apoptosis in COS-1 cells in the absence of growth factors. Surjit, M., Liu, B., Jameel, S., Chow, V.T., Lal, S.K. Biochem. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Extremely low exposure of a community to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus: false seropositivity due to use of bacterially derived antigens. Leung, D.T., van Maren, W.W., Chan, F.K., Chan, W.S., Lo, A.W., Ma, C.H., Tam, F.C., To, K.F., Chan, P.K., Sung, J.J., Lim, P.L. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Long-lived memory T lymphocyte responses against SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein in SARS-recovered patients. Peng, H., Yang, L.T., Wang, L.Y., Li, J., Huang, J., Lu, Z.Q., Koup, R.A., Bailer, R.T., Wu, C.Y. Virology (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization and application of monoclonal antibodies against N protein of SARS-coronavirus. Shang, B., Wang, X.Y., Yuan, J.W., Vabret, A., Wu, X.D., Yang, R.F., Tian, L., Ji, Y.Y., Deubel, V., Sun, B. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Copious production of SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein employing codon optimized synthetic gene. Das, D., Suresh, M.R. J. Virol. Methods (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Nuclear/nucleolar localization properties of C-terminal nucleocapsid protein of SARS coronavirus. Timani, K.A., Liao, Q., Ye, L., Zeng, Y., Liu, J., Zheng, Y., Ye, L., Yang, X., Lingbao, K., Gao, J., Zhu, Y. Virus Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Amino acid residues critical for RNA-binding in the N-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid protein are essential determinants for the infectivity of coronavirus in cultured cells. Tan, Y.W., Fang, S., Fan, H., Lescar, J., Liu, D.X. Nucleic Acids Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential sensitivities of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus spike polypeptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein ELISA for serodiagnosis of SARS coronavirus pneumonia. Woo, P.C., Lau, S.K., Wong, B.H., Tsoi, H.W., Fung, A.M., Kao, R.Y., Chan, K.H., Peiris, J.S., Yuen, K.Y. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Detection of specific antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nucleocapsid protein for serodiagnosis of SARS coronavirus pneumonia. Woo, P.C., Lau, S.K., Wong, B.H., Tsoi, H.W., Fung, A.M., Chan, K.H., Tam, V.K., Peiris, J.S., Yuen, K.Y. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus membrane protein interacts with nucleocapsid protein mostly through their carboxyl termini by electrostatic attraction. Luo, H., Wu, D., Shen, C., Chen, K., Shen, X., Jiang, H. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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