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Gene Review

NV  -  non-virion protein

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

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Disease relevance of NV

  • Our results showed that neither the internal structural proteins (N, P and M) nor the NV protein of IHNV induced protective immunity in fry or neutralizing antibodies in fry and 150 g fish when expressed by a DNA vaccine construct [1].
  • The NV gene of snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) is not required for pathogenesis, and a heterologous glycoprotein can be incorporated into the SHRV envelope [2].
  • Snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) affects warm-water fish in Southeast Asia and belongs to the genus Novirhabdovirus by virtue of its "nonvirion" (NV) gene [2].
  • The prediction that the NV protein is a nonstructural protein is supported by its absence from mature virions although it is present in infected cells [3].
  • These results suggest that the presence of an NV gene is characteristic of the unassigned fish rhabdovirus subgroup previously classified as lyssaviruses, and that the NV gene is not essential for replication in fish cells per se, since it is absent in a vesiculovirus-like fish rhabdovirus [4].

High impact information on NV

  • Interestingly, the unsuccessful rescue of fully viable recombinants with genomes containing deletions in the G/NV gene junction suggested a role for the gene junction in virus transcription and replication [2].
  • The recombinant virus was produced at the same rate and same final concentrations as the wild-type virus in cultured fish cells in spite of the NV gene deletion [2].
  • To investigate the role of NV protein in virus replication, the pIHNV-Pst construct was engineered such that the entire NV open reading frame was deleted and replaced by the genes encoding green fluorescent protein or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase [5].
  • The expression of M alone potently inhibited reporter gene expression from a viral and an interferon (IFN)-inducible promoter, whereas P and NV did not produce a similar effect [6].
  • The present study investigated three other fish rhabdovirus genomes and found that the NV gene of hirame rhabdovirus is closely related to the NV of IHNV, whereas the viral haemorrhagic septicemia NV gene showed evidence of significant divergence [4].

Chemical compound and disease context of NV


Biological context of NV

  • Conservation of NV protein sequence (111 amino acids in length) confirms that the protein is functional and plays an important role in virus replication [7].
  • Prokaryotic expression products of the open reading frames predicted to encode the matrix proteins M1 and M2, the glycoprotein G and the NV protein reacted with rabbit anti-IHNV serum thereby confirming their identity [8].
  • RPA analyses, utilizing 4 probes, N5, N3 (N gene), GF (G gene), and NV (NV gene), determined that the haplotypes of all 3 genes demonstrated a consistent spatial pattern [9].
  • The NV genes of fish rhabdoviruses: development of RNase protection assays for rapid assessment of genetic variation [10].
  • We have constructed a plasmid which carries a full length cDNA copy of the IHNV NV gene between 2 RNA polymerase promoters such that plus-sense and minus-sense RNA transcripts of the IHNV NV gene can be synthesized [10].

Associations of NV with chemical compounds

  • We expressed the NV protein as a fusion protein with the glutathione S-transferase of Schistosoma japonicum and used the purified fusion protein to immunize rabbits [3].

Other interactions of NV


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NV

  • The successful recovery of recombinant virus expressing foreign genes instead of the NV gene demonstrated that the NV protein was not absolutely required for viral replication in cell cultures, although its presence greatly improves virus growth [5].
  • By immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, fragmented nuclei were found in some cells expressing M protein but not in cells expressing P, NV, or beta-galactosidase protein [6].


  1. Evaluation of the protective immunogenicity of the N, P, M, NV and G proteins of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss using DNA vaccines. Corbeil, S., Lapatra, S.E., Anderson, E.D., Jones, J., Vincent, B., Hsu, Y.L., Kurath, G. Dis. Aquat. Org. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. The NV gene of snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) is not required for pathogenesis, and a heterologous glycoprotein can be incorporated into the SHRV envelope. Alonso, M., Kim, C.H., Johnson, M.C., Pressley, M., Leong, J.A. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Distant strains of the fish rhabdovirus VHSV maintain a sixth functional cistron which codes for a nonstructural protein of unknown function. Basurco, B., Benmansour, A. Virology (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Distribution and variation of NV genes in fish rhabdoviruses. Kurath, G., Higman, K.H., Björklund, H.V. J. Gen. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Recovery of NV knockout infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus expressing foreign genes. Biacchesi, S., Thoulouze, M.I., Béarzotti, M., Yu, Y.X., Brémont, M. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus matrix protein inhibits host-directed gene expression and induces morphological changes of apoptosis in cell cultures. Chiou, P.P., Kim, C.H., Ormonde, P., Leong, J.A. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular epizootiology and evolution of the glycoprotein and non-virion protein genes of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, a fish rhabdovirus. Nichol, S.T., Rowe, J.E., Winton, J.R. Virus Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Complete genomic sequence of the fish rhabdovirus infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus. Schütze, H., Enzmann, P.J., Kuchling, R., Mundt, E., Niemann, H., Mettenleiter, T.C. J. Gen. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetic diversity and epidemiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Alaska. Emmenegger, E.J., Meyers, T.R., Burton, T.O., Kurath, G. Dis. Aquat. Org. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. The NV genes of fish rhabdoviruses: development of RNase protection assays for rapid assessment of genetic variation. Kurath, G., Higman, K.H., Björklund, H.V. Vet. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
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