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Gene Review

Hoxd11  -  homeobox D11

Mus musculus

Synonyms: E230017H14Rik, Homeobox protein Hox-4.6, Homeobox protein Hox-5.5, Homeobox protein Hox-D11, Hox-4.6, ...
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High impact information on Hoxd11

  • Using embryonic stem (ES) cells and a site-specific recombination system (loxP/Cre), we have induced a deficiency that eliminates the products of the Hoxd-13, Hoxd-12 and Hoxd-11 genes simultaneously [1].
  • A Hoxd-11/lacz reporter gene replaced the deleted region in order to monitor the effect of this triple inactivation at the cellular level [1].
  • Hoxa11/Hoxd11 double mutants, however, demonstrate hypoplasia of the kidneys [2].
  • In mutant embryos, expression of both Hoxd-11 and Hoxd-10 mRNAs in the prevertebral column is anteriorized [3].
  • Hoxd-11 is expressed in the posterior part of the embryo, up to the level of prevertebra 27, and its expression boundary is reproduced by a Hoxd-11/lacZ transgene [3].

Biological context of Hoxd11


Anatomical context of Hoxd11

  • In this study, we show that malformation of the forelimb zeugopod in Hoxa11/Hoxd11 double mutants is a consequence of interruption at multiple steps during the formation of the radius and ulna [7].
  • In this mutant, ectopic expression of the Hoxd-11 gene, thought to be downstream of ZPA, was also observed at the anterior margin of the limb buds [8].
  • Using transgenic mice, we show that Hoxd-11 repression by region IX is necessary to position the sacrum properly [3].
  • Finally, Hoxd-11 alters head, thorax and abdomen [9].
  • The Hoxd-11 gene was disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells [10].

Associations of Hoxd11 with chemical compounds

  • This work suggests that the Integrin alpha8 gene may be a major effector of Hoxa 11/Hoxd 11 function in the developing kidney [6].
  • There was a good correlation between the effects of retinoic acid on Hoxd-11 and Hoxd-13 expression and delay of skeletal differentiation, suggesting that this may be a direct effect [11].

Regulatory relationships of Hoxd11

  • To further explore the functional relationship between these genes, as well as the potential rescue of one function by the other, we have introduced a Hoxd-11-expressing transgene into Hoxa-11/Hoxd-11 mutant genetic backgrounds [12].

Other interactions of Hoxd11


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hoxd11


  1. Synpolydactyly in mice with a targeted deficiency in the HoxD complex. Zákány, J., Duboule, D. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Hox11 paralogous genes are essential for metanephric kidney induction. Wellik, D.M., Hawkes, P.J., Capecchi, M.R. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. In vivo targeted mutagenesis of a regulatory element required for positioning the Hoxd-11 and Hoxd-10 expression boundaries. Gérard, M., Chen, J.Y., Gronemeyer, H., Chambon, P., Duboule, D., Zákány, J. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Comprehensive microarray analysis of Hoxa11/Hoxd11 mutant kidney development. Schwab, K., Hartman, H.A., Liang, H.C., Aronow, B.J., Patterson, L.T., Potter, S.S. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Deletion of a HoxD enhancer induces transcriptional heterochrony leading to transposition of the sacrum. Zákány, J., Gérard, M., Favier, B., Duboule, D. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Hoxa 11 is upstream of Integrin alpha8 expression in the developing kidney. Valerius, M.T., Patterson, L.T., Feng, Y., Potter, S.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Multiple roles of Hoxa11 and Hoxd11 in the formation of the mammalian forelimb zeugopod. Boulet, A.M., Capecchi, M.R. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. A duplicated zone of polarizing activity in polydactylous mouse mutants. Masuya, H., Sagai, T., Wakana, S., Moriwaki, K., Shiroishi, T. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Conservation of a functional hierarchy between mammalian and insect Hox/HOM genes. Bachiller, D., Macías, A., Duboule, D., Morata, G. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Axial skeleton homeosis and forelimb malformations in Hoxd-11 mutant mice. Favier, B., Le Meur, M., Chambon, P., Dollé, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of all-trans-retinoic acid on skeletal pattern, 5'HoxD gene expression, and RAR beta 2/beta 4 promoter activity in embryonic mouse limbs. Wood, H.B., Ward, S.J., Morriss-Kay, G.M. Dev. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Functional equivalence and rescue among group 11 Hox gene products in vertebral patterning. Zákány, J., Gérard, M., Favier, B., Potter, S.S., Duboule, D. Dev. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Murine genes related to the Drosophila AbdB homeotic genes are sequentially expressed during development of the posterior part of the body. Izpisúa-Belmonte, J.C., Falkenstein, H., Dollé, P., Renucci, A., Duboule, D. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Functional cooperation between the non-paralogous genes Hoxa-10 and Hoxd-11 in the developing forelimb and axial skeleton. Favier, B., Rijli, F.M., Fromental-Ramain, C., Fraulob, V., Chambon, P., Dollé, P. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. All for one and one for all: condensations and the initiation of skeletal development. Hall, B.K., Miyake, T. Bioessays (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Microarray analysis of novel cell lines representing two stages of metanephric mesenchyme differentiation. Valerius, M.T., Patterson, L.T., Witte, D.P., Potter, S.S. Mech. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
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