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Disease relevance of Sacrum


High impact information on Sacrum

  • Using transgenic mice, we show that Hoxd-11 repression by region IX is necessary to position the sacrum properly [6].
  • Structure of the [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin I from the blue-green alga Aphanothece sacrum at 2.2 A resolution [7].
  • BACKGROUND: The combination of partial absence of the sacrum, anorectal anomalies, and presacral mass constitutes Currarino syndrome (CS), which is associated with mutations in HLXB9 [8].
  • The sacral coronal plane was best for the visualization of the bony sacrum, sacral foramina, and proximal S-1 to S-4 nerve roots [9].
  • By performing simultaneous 131I whole-body and 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone scans, we found the lesion to be in soft tissue between the sacrum and bladder [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Sacrum


Biological context of Sacrum


Anatomical context of Sacrum

  • Fetuses carrying this replacement activated Hoxd-11 transcription prematurely, which led to a rostral shift of its expression boundary and a consequent anterior transposition of the sacrum [14].
  • The ratio of the uptake of radioactivity in each sacroiliac joint to the uptake in the sacrum has been measured in 57 patients with early ankylosing spondylitis and in 51 control subjects [15].
  • Radiographs documented short and wide humeri, symmetrical brachymetacarpy, coronal clefts of the veretebrae, and punctate calcifications in the spine, sacrum, shoulder, feet, and trachea [16].
  • Methyl cellulose was then put over the bone wax and the periosteum of the sacrum and posterior peritoneum (mobilized if necessary), sutured over the methyl cellulose [17].
  • Subsequent to these surgeries, two patients developed osteogenic sarcoma at sites unrelated to their past procedures, one in the sacrum and one in the calvarium [18].

Associations of Sacrum with chemical compounds

  • Serial quantitative scintigraphy showed a mean fall in joint sacrum ratios following each treatment which was statistically significant (p less than 0.02) only after naproxen [19].
  • Serial computer assisted quantitative sacroiliac scintiscanning (SI joint/sacrum ratios) 3 hours after low dosage (5 mCi) 99mTc methylene diphosphonate has been used as an objective index of sacroiliitis in a single blind 14-day cross-over comparison of azapropazone 600 mg b.d. and naproxen 500 mg b.d. in 18 patients with active sacroiliitis [19].
  • A scimitar-shaped sacrum on anterioposterior plain roentgenograms of the spine is pathognomonic [20].
  • The aims of this study were 1) to assess the best pin shaft length by measuring the thickness of human sacral vertebral bodies, 2) to measure the forces needed to pull the newly designed pin out of the human sacrum compared with conventionally shaped titanium thumbtacks, and 3) to assess clinically the efficacy of the new device [21].
  • METHODS: Radiopaque markers were placed in the sacrum and each innominate bone before standardized performance of computed tomography scans at 3-mm intervals, with the fresh cadaver stabilized in the side-lying position on a specially constructed pallet [22].

Gene context of Sacrum

  • Except for one case located at the sacrum, none of the other soft-tissue HPCs showed immunostaining for PGDS [23].
  • The tumor was excised from a 71-year-old man who previously had a conventional chordoma resected from his sacrum 26 years earlier [24].
  • One case presented as a rapidly growing 20-cm multiloculated, cystic, calcific gluteal mass on the sacrum, which was not clinically suspected to be related to hyperparathyroidism [25].
  • Aphanothece sacrum, an edible freshwater unicellular cyanobacterium, was isolated by using novel synthetic media (designated AST and AST-5xNP) [2].
  • The anterior aspect of the sacrum was exposed through an extended ilioinguinal approach, and the posterior aspect, through a midline approach [3].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sacrum

  • The other patient presented with metastatic HCC to the sacrum and lung, and she died after an initial response to chemotherapy in 12 months [26].
  • Crystallization and a 5 A X-ray diffraction study of Aphanothece sacrum ferredoxin [27].
  • We also studied conventional osteosarcoma (10 lesions), a very common primary malignant bone tumour; and chordoma in the sacrum (four lesions), an entity requiring differential diagnosis from GCT of the sacrum [28].
  • METHODS: A total of eight human cadaveric lumbosacral spines (L2 to sacrum) were utilized in this investigation and biomechanically evaluated under the following L4-L5 reconstruction conditions: 1) intact spine; 2) SB Charitè disc prosthesis; 3) BAK cages; and 4) BAK cages + ISOLA pedicle screw/rod fixation (anteroposterior) [29].


  1. Insufficiency fractures of the sacrum. Cooper, K.L., Beabout, J.W., Swee, R.G. Radiology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Establishment of a pure culture of the hitherto uncultured unicellular cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum, and phylogenetic position of the organism. Fujishiro, T., Ogawa, T., Matsuoka, M., Nagahama, K., Takeshima, Y., Hagiwara, H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Cephalad sacral resection with a combined extended ilioinguinal and posterior approach. Simpson, A.H., Porter, A., Davis, A., Griffin, A., McLeod, R.S., Bell, R.S. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Atypical forms of spinal tuberculosis: case report and review of the literature. Naim-Ur-Rahman, n.u.l.l., El-Bakry, A., Jamjoom, A., Jamjoom, Z.A., Kolawole, T.M. Surgical neurology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Balloon kyphoplasty for treatment of sacral insufficiency fractures. Report of three cases. Deen, H.G., Nottmeier, E.W. Neurosurgical focus [electronic resource]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. In vivo targeted mutagenesis of a regulatory element required for positioning the Hoxd-11 and Hoxd-10 expression boundaries. Gérard, M., Chen, J.Y., Gronemeyer, H., Chambon, P., Duboule, D., Zákány, J. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Structure of the [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin I from the blue-green alga Aphanothece sacrum at 2.2 A resolution. Tsukihara, T., Fukuyama, K., Mizushima, M., Harioka, T., Kusunoki, M., Katsube, Y., Hase, T., Matsubara, H. J. Mol. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Population differences in the polyalanine domain and 6 new mutations in HLXB9 in patients with Currarino syndrome. Garcia-Barceló, M., So, M.T., Lau, D.K., Leon, T.Y., Yuan, Z.W., Cai, W.S., Lui, V.C., Fu, M., Herbrick, J.A., Gutter, E., Proud, V., Li, L., Pierre-Louis, J., Aleck, K., van Heurn, E., Belloni, E., Scherer, S.W., Tam, P.K. Clin. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Sacral plexus: optimal imaging planes for MR assessment. Blake, L.C., Robertson, W.D., Hayes, C.E. Radiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Pelvic radioiodine uptake in a rectal wall teratoma after thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma. Lakshmanan, M., Reynolds, J.C., Del Vecchio, S., Merino, M.J., Norton, J.A., Robbins, J. J. Nucl. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Spinal abnormalities in classic bladder exstrophy. Cadeddu, J.A., Benson, J.E., Silver, R.I., Lakshmanan, Y., Jeffs, R.D., Gearhart, J.P. British journal of urology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Amino acid sequence of Aphanothece sacrum Ferredoxin II (minor component). Structural characteristics and evolutionary implications. Hase, T., Wakabayashi, S., Wada, K., Matsubara, H. J. Biochem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Treatment in the prone position of calculi in the midureter overlying the bony sacrum with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Keeler, L.L., McNamara, T.C., Dorey, F.O., Milsten, R. The Journal of lithotripsy & stone disease. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Interspecies exchange of a Hoxd enhancer in vivo induces premature transcription and anterior shift of the sacrum. Gérard, M., Zákány, J., Duboule, D. Dev. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Application of Bayes' theorem to the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis from radioisotope bone scans. Diffey, B.L., Pal, B., Gibson, C.J., Clayton, C.B., Griffiths, I.D. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Chondrodysplasia punctata, humero-metacarpal type: a second case. Fryburg, J.S., Kelly, T.E. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Gunshot injuries of the sacrum. Naude, G.P., Bongard, F.S. The Journal of trauma. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Familial incidence of Paget's disease and secondary osteogenic sarcoma. A report of three cases from a single family. Wu, R.K., Trumble, T.E., Ruwe, P.A. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Quantitative sacroiliac scintiscanning: a sensitive and objective method for assessing efficacy of nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with sacroiliitis. Dunn, N.A., Mahida, B.H., Merrick, M.V., Nuki, G. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Anterior sacral meningocele: two case reports and discussion of surgical approach. Smith, H.P., Davis, C.H. Neurosurgery (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. Newly designed occluder pin for presacral hemorrhage. Stolfi, V.M., Milsom, J.W., Lavery, I.C., Oakley, J.R., Church, J.M., Fazio, V.W. Dis. Colon Rectum (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Sacroiliac motion for extreme hip positions. A fresh cadaver study. Smidt, G.L., Wei, S.H., McQuade, K., Barakatt, E., Sun, T., Stanford, W. Spine. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Prostaglandin D synthase (beta-trace) in meningeal hemangiopericytoma. Kawashima, M., Suzuki, S.O., Yamashima, T., Fukui, M., Iwaki, T. Mod. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Lumbo-sacral chordoma with high-grade malignant cartilaginous and spindle cell components. Hruban, R.H., May, M., Marcove, R.C., Huvos, A.G. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Nonfamilial tumoral calcinosis associated with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism: report of two cases with clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic findings. McGregor, D.H., Mowry, M., Cherian, R., McAnaw, M., Poole, E. Hum. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Hepatomas in young women on oral contraceptives: report of two cases and review of the literature. Gala, K.V., Griffin, T.W. Journal of surgical oncology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Crystallization and a 5 A X-ray diffraction study of Aphanothece sacrum ferredoxin. Kunita, A., Koshibe, M., Nishkawa, Y., Fukuyama, K., Tsukihara, T., Katsube, Y., Matsuura, Y., Tanaka, N., Kakudo, M., Hase, T., Matsubara, H. J. Biochem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Intense 201 Tl uptake in giant-cell tumour of bone. Higuchi, T., Taki, J., Sumiya, H., Kinuya, S., Bunko, H., Nonomura, A., Tsuchiya, H., Tonami, N. Nuclear medicine communications. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Biomechanical evaluation of total disc replacement arthroplasty: an in vitro human cadaveric model. Cunningham, B.W., Gordon, J.D., Dmitriev, A.E., Hu, N., McAfee, P.C. Spine. (2003) [Pubmed]
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