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Gene Review

Car9  -  carbonic anhydrase 9

Mus musculus

Synonyms: CA-IX, CAIX, Ca9, Carbonate dehydratase IX, Carbonic anhydrase 9, ...
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Disease relevance of Car9


High impact information on Car9


Biological context of Car9

  • Stomach samples were collected from 40 Car 9(-/-) knockout mice and 37 wildtype littermates, and the tissue sections were examined for histology [7].
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that both CA IX and XII are present in several tissues of the developing mouse embryo during organogenesis [8].
  • In vivo growth kinetics and CA-IX expression were compared between RENCA and RENCA/CA-IX using heterotopic, metastatic, and orthotopic models [3].

Anatomical context of Car9

  • Therefore, the unique subcellular localization of CA IX and CA XIV in cardiac myocytes suggests different functions of both enzymes in excitation-contraction coupling [9].
  • Inactivation of the VHL gene resulted in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha stabilization and induction of its target genes, VEGF and CAIX, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) [10].
  • Moreover, the availability of the MAbs specific for distinct antigenic regions on two separate extracellular domains offers an opportunity to elaborate a sensitive assay that could be particularly important for CA IX detection in body fluids of cancer patients [2].
  • Reverse transcriptase PCR analyses surprisingly revealed strong signals for CA IX mRNA in the kidney and skeletal muscle, while the IHC and Western blotting showed no or weak signals for the corresponding protein [11].
  • In a recently described knockout mouse model for CA IX deficiency, the only phenotypic abnormalities were limited to the gastric mucosa, while no changes were observed in the other tissues known to express CA IX in rats and humans [11].

Other interactions of Car9

  • CA XIV is predominantly localized in the longitudinal SR, whereas CA IX is mainly expressed in the terminal SR/t-tubular region [9].
  • Staining for CA IX revealed a relatively wide distribution pattern with moderate signals in the brain, lung, pancreas and liver and weak signals in the kidney and stomach [8].


  1. Gastric hyperplasia in mice with targeted disruption of the carbonic anhydrase gene Car9. Gut, M.O., Parkkila, S., Vernerová, Z., Rohde, E., Závada, J., Höcker, M., Pastorek, J., Karttunen, T., Gibadulinová, A., Závadová, Z., Knobeloch, K.P., Wiedenmann, B., Svoboda, J., Horak, I., Pastoreková, S. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Monoclonal antibodies generated in carbonic anhydrase IX-deficient mice recognize different domains of tumour-associated hypoxia-induced carbonic anhydrase IX. Zat'ovicová, M., Tarábková, K., Svastová, E., Gibadulinová, A., Mucha, V., Jakubícková, L., Biesová, Z., Rafajová, M., Ortova Gut, M., Parkkila, S., Parkkila, A.K., Waheed, A., Sly, W.S., Horak, I., Pastorek, J., Pastoreková, S. J. Immunol. Methods (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. RENCA/carbonic anhydrase-IX: a murine model of a carbonic anhydrase-IX-expressing renal cell carcinoma. Shvarts, O., Janzen, N., Lam, J.S., Leppert, J.T., Caliliw, R., Figlin, R.A., Belldegrun, A.S., Zeng, G. Urology (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Carbonic anhydrase 9 as an endogenous marker for hypoxic cells in cervical cancer. Olive, P.L., Aquino-Parsons, C., MacPhail, S.H., Liao, S.Y., Raleigh, J.A., Lerman, M.I., Stanbridge, E.J. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Carbonic anhydrase gene expression in CA II-deficient (Car2-/-) and CA IX-deficient (Car9-/-) mice. Pan, P., Leppilampi, M., Pastorekova, S., Pastorek, J., Waheed, A., Sly, W.S., Parkkila, S. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Extracellular superoxide dismutase functions as a major repressor of hypoxia-induced erythropoietin gene expression. Zelko, I.N., Folz, R.J. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Gastric pit cell hyperplasia and glandular atrophy in carbonic anhydrase IX knockout mice: studies on two strains C57/BL6 and BALB/C. Leppilampi, M., Karttunen, T.J., Kivelä, J., Gut, M.O., Pastoreková, S., Pastorek, J., Parkkila, S. Transgenic Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of carbonic anhydrases IX and XII during mouse embryonic development. Kallio, H., Pastorekova, S., Pastorek, J., Waheed, A., Sly, W.S., Mannisto, S., Heikinheimo, M., Parkkila, S. BMC Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of Membrane-bound Carbonic Anhydrases IV, IX, and XIV in the Mouse Heart. Scheibe, R.J., Gros, G., Parkkila, S., Waheed, A., Grubb, J.H., Shah, G.N., Sly, W.S., Wetzel, P. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Vascular defects and liver damage by the acute inactivation of the VHL gene during mouse embryogenesis. Hong, S.B., Furihata, M., Baba, M., Zbar, B., Schmidt, L.S. Lab. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of carbonic anhydrase IX in mouse tissues. Hilvo, M., Rafajová, M., Pastoreková, S., Pastorek, J., Parkkila, S. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
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