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Gene Review

Car1  -  carbonic anhydrase 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AW555628, CA I, CA-I, Ca1, Car-1, ...
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Disease relevance of Car1


Psychiatry related information on Car1


High impact information on Car1


Chemical compound and disease context of Car1


Biological context of Car1


Anatomical context of Car1


Associations of Car1 with chemical compounds

  • Because the regulation by pH and bicarbonate/CO2 may be relatively selective for CA in adipocytes, a simple method for reducing the concentration/activity of CA in 3T3 adipocytes is described that may be a useful tool for studies on the physiological role of the enzyme [20].
  • The mechanism by which animals develop tolerance to the antiepileptic effects of the carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor, acetazolamide, was explored using a quantitative immunocytochemical method [21].
  • Carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice offer a possibility to study the localization along the nephron of membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity without interference from the cytoplasmic enzyme [22].
  • However, 60% of the total carbonic anhydrase activity in the mouse was of the sulfonamide-sensitive type and, therefore, not related to carbonic anhydrase III [23].
  • Inhibition of CA (methazolamide, 25 mg/kg) led in all groups to equivalent increments of urine pH, urine flow, and HCO3-, Na+, and K+ excretion [24].

Physical interactions of Car1

  • In Car-2(0) mouse colonic mucosa, total CA activity was reduced 80% and cytosolic CA I and membrane-bound CA IV activities were not increased [25].

Co-localisations of Car1


Regulatory relationships of Car1


Other interactions of Car1

  • CA(II)D resulted in a much lower total CA specific activity in all tissues examined but in higher CA IV specific activities in soluble and membrane-associated fractions and pure myelin [14].
  • Both CA III and non-CA III activities, measured by 18O mass spectrometry, were present in 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A adipocytes; however, no CA activity was detected in 3T3 preadipocytes of either line [20].
  • BACKGROUND: Of the thirteen active carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes, CA IX and XII have been linked to carcinogenesis [17].
  • Striated ducts in guinea pig, but not mouse salivary glands, stained darker for CA and appeared accordingly to function more actively in ion transport compared with excretory ducts [19].
  • CAI transcripts in the colon were found to initiate just upstream of the erythroid exon 2 of the CAI gene region sequence [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Car1


  1. The mouse carbonic anhydrase I gene contains two tissue-specific promoters. Fraser, P., Cummings, P., Curtis, P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of carbonic anhydrase IV in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice. Brion, L.P., Cammer, W., Satlin, L.M., Suarez, C., Zavilowitz, B.J., Schuster, V.L. Am. J. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Catalytic properties of mouse carbonic anhydrase V. Heck, R.W., Tanhauser, S.M., Manda, R., Tu, C., Laipis, P.J., Silverman, D.N. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Reduced susceptibility to seizures in carbonic anhydrase II deficient mutant mice. Velísek, L., Moshé, S.L., Xu, S.G., Cammer, W. Epilepsy Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Decrease in oligodendrocyte carbonic anhydrase activity preceding myelin degeneration in cuprizone induced demyelination. Komoly, S., Jeyasingham, M.D., Pratt, O.E., Lantos, P.L. J. Neurol. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Correlation between effects of acute acetazolamide administration to mice on electroshock seizure threshold and maximal electroshock seizure pattern, and on carbonic anhydrase activity in subcellular fractions of brain. Anderson, R.E., Howard, R.A., Woodbury, D.M. Epilepsia (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Specific pattern of gene expression during induction of mouse erythroleukemia cells. Fraser, P.J., Curtis, P.J. Genes Dev. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Colonic epithelial functional phenotype varies with type and phase of experimental colitis. Mizoguchi, E., Xavier, R.J., Reinecker, H.C., Uchino, H., Bhan, A.K., Podolsky, D.K., Mizoguchi, A. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Gastric hyperplasia in mice with targeted disruption of the carbonic anhydrase gene Car9. Gut, M.O., Parkkila, S., Vernerová, Z., Rohde, E., Závada, J., Höcker, M., Pastorek, J., Karttunen, T., Gibadulinová, A., Závadová, Z., Knobeloch, K.P., Wiedenmann, B., Svoboda, J., Horak, I., Pastoreková, S. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Malignant transformation of duct-like cells originating from acini in transforming growth factor transgenic mice. Wagner, M., Lührs, H., Klöppel, G., Adler, G., Schmid, R.M. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Cholera toxin-stimulated bone resorption in cultured mouse calvarial bones not inhibited by calcitonin: a possible interaction at the stimulatory G protein. Ransjö, M., Lerner, U.H., Ljunggren, O. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. CO2 retention as a basis for increased toxicity of salicylate with acetazolamide: avoidance of increased toxicity with benzolamide. Liddell, N.E., Maren, T.H. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone and dibutyryl cyclic AMP: role of carbonic anhydrase. Hall, G.E., Kenny, A.D. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Up-regulation of carbonic anhydrase isozyme IV in CNS myelin of mice genetically deficient in carbonic anhydrase II. Brion, L.P., Suarez, C., Zhang, H., Cammer, W. J. Neurochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Mapping of mouse carbonic anhydrase-3, Car-3: another locus in the homologous region of mouse chromosome 3 and human chromosome 8. Beechey, C., Tweedie, S., Spurr, N., Ball, S., Peters, J., Edwards, Y. Genomics (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Evolution of mammalian carbonic anhydrase loci by tanden duplication: close linkage of Car-1 and Car-2 to the centromere region of chromosome 3 of the mouse. Eicher, E.M., Stern, R.H., Womack, J.E., Davisson, M.T., Roderick, T.H., Reynolds, S.C. Biochem. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of carbonic anhydrases IX and XII during mouse embryonic development. Kallio, H., Pastorekova, S., Pastorek, J., Waheed, A., Sly, W.S., Mannisto, S., Heikinheimo, M., Parkkila, S. BMC Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Contractile properties of skeletal muscle fibre bundles from mice deficient in carbonic anhydrase II. Beekley, M.D., Wetzel, P., Kubis, H.P., Gros, G. Pflugers Arch. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Comparative distribution of carbonic anhydrase isozymes III and II in rodent tissues. Spicer, S.S., Ge, Z.H., Tashian, R.E., Hazen-Martin, D.J., Schulte, B.A. Am. J. Anat. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Differentiation-dependent expression of carbonic anhydrase II and III in 3T3 adipocytes. Lynch, C.J., Hazen, S.A., Horetsky, R.L., Carter, N.D., Dodgson, S.J. Am. J. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Induction of new carbonic anhydrase II following treatment with acetazolamide in DBA and C57 mice. Banks, D.A., Anderson, R.E., Woodbury, D.M. Epilepsia (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase activity in the kidney of CA II-deficient mice. Ridderstråle, Y., Wistrand, P.J., Tashian, R.E. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Carbonic anhydrase in mouse skeletal muscle and its influence on contractility. Côté, C.H., Jomphe, N., Odeimat, A., Frémont, P. Biochem. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Localization and activity of renal carbonic anhydrase (CA) in CA-II deficient mice. Brechue, W.F., Kinne-Saffran, E., Kinne, R.K., Maren, T.H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Acid-base effects on electrolyte transport in CA II-deficient mouse colon. Goldfarb, D.S., Sly, W.S., Waheed, A., Charney, A.N. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Immunostaining of carbamoylphosphate synthase II and fatty acid synthase in glial cells in rat, mouse, and hamster brains suggests roles for carbonic anhydrase in biosynthetic processes. Cammer, W. Neurosci. Lett. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Carbonic anhydrase in mouse testis and epididymis; transfer of isozyme IV to spermatozoa during passage. Ekstedt, E., Holm, L., Ridderstråle, Y. J. Mol. Histol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Immunocytochemistry of ion transport mediators in the genital tract of female rodents. Ge, Z.H., Spicer, S.S. Biol. Reprod. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Comparison of immunocytochemical staining of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myelinated fibers in the brains of carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice and normal littermates. Cammer, W., Zhang, H. J. Neuroimmunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Differentiation-dependent expression of CA V and the role of carbonic anhydrase isozymes in pyruvate carboxylation in adipocytes. Hazen, S.A., Waheed, A., Sly, W.S., LaNoue, K.F., Lynch, C.J. FASEB J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Ultrastructural localization of carbonic anhydrase II in subpopulations of intercalated cells of the rat kidney. Kim, J., Tisher, C.C., Linser, P.J., Madsen, K.M. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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