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Gene Review

Car2  -  carbonic anhydrase 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AI131712, CA II, CA-II, CAII, Ca2, ...
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Disease relevance of Car2


Psychiatry related information on Car2


High impact information on Car2


Chemical compound and disease context of Car2


Biological context of Car2

  • One is a silent polymorphism found in Car2 mRNA from wild-type DBA mice, which is the strain that provided the original mutagenized chromosome [12].
  • Contrary to expectations, homozygous deletion of either Car2 or Ncam1 did not result in placental phenotypes [1].
  • Apart from a detailed expression analysis of both genes during normal murine placentation, we also assessed morphology of placentas that were null for Car2 or Ncam1 [1].
  • Structure and exon to protein domain relationships of the mouse carbonic anhydrase II gene [13].
  • Thus, except for the possible association of the 29 active site residues encoded by four exons, no obvious correspondence is seen between the regions coded by exons and the functional or secondary structural domains of the mouse CA II molecule [13].

Anatomical context of Car2


Associations of Car2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Car2

  • I conclude that these nonconsensus Ap2-like elements and their cognitive binding protein play a major role in the expression of the CAII gene [20].
  • Inhibition data of the cytosolic isozymes CA I and CA II and the membrane-bound isozyme CA IV with these inhibitors are also provided for comparison [21].

Regulatory relationships of Car2

  • By comparing normal mice with CA II-deficient mice, we were able to study membrane-bound CA without influence from the ubiquitous cytoplasmic CA II [22].
  • Pendrin- and vH+-ATPase-positive cells also expressed cytoplasmic CA II [23].

Other interactions of Car2

  • Car9 mRNA and CA IX protein expression levels were up-regulated about 2.5- and 3.6-fold, respectively, in the stomach of the Car2-/- mice [12].
  • Expression and functional analysis of genes deregulated in mouse placental overgrowth models: Car2 and Ncam1 [1].
  • A Single Copy of Carbonic anhydrase 2 Restores Wild-type Circadian Period to Carbonic Anhydrase II-Deficient Mice [24].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We microdissected embryonic pancreases at Embryonic Days (E)9.5-11.5 and performed RT-PCR for CAII and CFTR on E9.5 whole pancreases, E10 [25].
  • Carbonic anhydrase III occurred alone in some and with CA II in other sites but was often absent from CA-II-containing types of cells [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Car2


  1. Expression and functional analysis of genes deregulated in mouse placental overgrowth models: Car2 and Ncam1. Singh, U., Sun, T., Shi, W., Schulz, R., Nuber, U.A., Varanou, A., Hemberger, M.C., Elliott, R.W., Ohta, H., Wakayama, T., Fundele, R. Dev. Dyn. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) deficiency on CNS structure and function in the myelin-deficient CAII-deficient double mutant mouse. Cammer, W., Zhang, H., Tansey, F.A. J. Neurosci. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Respiratory acidosis in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice. Lien, Y.H., Lai, L.W. Am. J. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Intraocular pressure in genetically distinct mice: an update and strain survey. Savinova, O.V., Sugiyama, F., Martin, J.E., Tomarev, S.I., Paigen, B.J., Smith, R.S., John, S.W. BMC Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Correction of renal tubular acidosis in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice with gene therapy. Lai, L.W., Chan, D.M., Erickson, R.P., Hsu, S.J., Lien, Y.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Mechanisms of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of acetazolamide in mice: relation to the activity and amount of carbonic anhydrase in brain. Anderson, R.E., Chiu, P., Woodbury, D.M. Epilepsia (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. A locus for circadian period of locomotor activity on mouse proximal chromosome 3. Kernek, K.L., Trofatter, J.A., Mayeda, A.R., Hofstetter, J.R. Chronobiol. Int. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibition of bone resorption in vitro by antisense RNA and DNA molecules targeted against carbonic anhydrase II or two subunits of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. Laitala, T., Väänänen, H.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Selection of lineage-restricted cell lines immortalized at different stages of hematopoietic differentiation from the murine cell line 32D. Migliaccio, G., Migliaccio, A.R., Kreider, B.L., Rovera, G., Adamson, J.W. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Decrease in oligodendrocyte carbonic anhydrase activity preceding myelin degeneration in cuprizone induced demyelination. Komoly, S., Jeyasingham, M.D., Pratt, O.E., Lantos, P.L. J. Neurol. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Developmental changes in seizure susceptibility in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice and normal littermates. Velíŝek, L., Moshé, S.L., Cammer, W. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Carbonic anhydrase gene expression in CA II-deficient (Car2-/-) and CA IX-deficient (Car9-/-) mice. Pan, P., Leppilampi, M., Pastorekova, S., Pastorek, J., Waheed, A., Sly, W.S., Parkkila, S. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Structure and exon to protein domain relationships of the mouse carbonic anhydrase II gene. Venta, P.J., Montgomery, J.C., Hewett-Emmett, D., Wiebauer, K., Tashian, R.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Carbonic anhydrase regulate endometrial gland development in the neonatal uterus. Hu, J., Spencer, T.E. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Up-regulation of carbonic anhydrase isozyme IV in CNS myelin of mice genetically deficient in carbonic anhydrase II. Brion, L.P., Suarez, C., Zhang, H., Cammer, W. J. Neurochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced null mutation at the mouse Car-2 locus: an animal model for human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome. Lewis, S.E., Erickson, R.P., Barnett, L.B., Venta, P.J., Tashian, R.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Differentiation-dependent expression of CA V and the role of carbonic anhydrase isozymes in pyruvate carboxylation in adipocytes. Hazen, S.A., Waheed, A., Sly, W.S., LaNoue, K.F., Lynch, C.J. FASEB J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Induction of new carbonic anhydrase II following treatment with acetazolamide in DBA and C57 mice. Banks, D.A., Anderson, R.E., Woodbury, D.M. Epilepsia (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase activity in the kidney of CA II-deficient mice. Ridderstråle, Y., Wistrand, P.J., Tashian, R.E. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of the mouse carbonic anhydrase II gene promoter. Marino, L.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of mitochondrial isozyme V with aromatic and heterocyclic sulfonamides. Vullo, D., Franchi, M., Gallori, E., Antel, J., Scozzafava, A., Supuran, C.T. J. Med. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Carbonic anhydrase in mouse testis and epididymis; transfer of isozyme IV to spermatozoa during passage. Ekstedt, E., Holm, L., Ridderstråle, Y. J. Mol. Histol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Co-expression of pendrin, vacuolar H+-ATPase alpha4-subunit and carbonic anhydrase II in epithelial cells of the murine endolymphatic sac. Dou, H., Xu, J., Wang, Z., Smith, A.N., Soleimani, M., Karet, F.E., Greinwald, J.H., Choo, D. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. A Single Copy of Carbonic anhydrase 2 Restores Wild-type Circadian Period to Carbonic Anhydrase II-Deficient Mice. Kernek, K.L., Trofatter, J.A., Mayeda, A.R., Lahiri, D.K., Hofstetter, J.R. Behav. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. In vitro validation of duct differentiation in developing embryonic mouse pancreas. Kadison, A.S., Maldonado, T.S., Crisera, C.A., Longaker, M.T., Gittes, G.K. J. Surg. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparative distribution of carbonic anhydrase isozymes III and II in rodent tissues. Spicer, S.S., Ge, Z.H., Tashian, R.E., Hazen-Martin, D.J., Schulte, B.A. Am. J. Anat. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Acid-base effects on electrolyte transport in CA II-deficient mouse colon. Goldfarb, D.S., Sly, W.S., Waheed, A., Charney, A.N. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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