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Gene Review

Gnal  -  guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Adenylate cyclase-stimulating G alpha protein, olfactory type, Golf, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(olf) subunit alpha, Olf, RGD1305940
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Psychiatry related information on Gnal

  • An olfactory-specific guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein alpha subunit has now been characterized and evidence is presented suggesting that this G protein, termed Golf, mediates olfaction [1].

High impact information on Gnal

  • Messenger RNA that encodes Golf alpha is expressed in olfactory neuroephithelium but not in six other tissues tested [1].
  • Moreover, within the olfactory epithelium, Golf alpha appears to be expressed only by the sensory neurons [1].
  • The expression of Golf alpha in S49 cyc- kin- cells, a line deficient in endogenous stimulatory G proteins, demonstrates its capacity to stimulate adenylate cyclase in a heterologous system [1].
  • Surprisingly, Golf interacts with beta-adrenergic receptors and is activated by isoproterenol (EC50 = 120 nM) [2].
  • The biochemical properties of three stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) alpha subunits, the large and small forms of Gs, Gs-l (52 kDa) and Gs-s (45 kDa), and the olfactory specific G-protein, Golf, have been compared [2].

Biological context of Gnal

  • No correlation was found between the tissue distribution of OL2 and that of the olfaction-related GTP-binding protein Golf alpha subunit [3].
  • Genotyping with 5 classical and 28 polymorphic microsatellite markers indicated that the third gene is located on chromosome 18, about 22 +/- 7 cM distal from the Olf locus (Iod score = 2.33) [4].
  • Immunoreactivity for antibodies to the olfactory signal-transduction proteins tended to parallel cilium development, though Golf alpha lags somewhat behind [5].

Anatomical context of Gnal

  • We found that Golf immunoreactivity is exclusively localized to giant cell trophoblasts and spongiotrophoblast cells [6].
  • Treatment with either haloperidol or sulpiride for 14 days increased the levels of Gs alpha and Gi alpha in the rat hippocampus, but decreased those of Golf alpha and Gi alpha in the rat striatum [7].
  • Since Golf alpha in the neuro-olfactory epithelium is coupled to olfactory receptors and type III adenylyl cyclase, we looked for the presence of such molecules in the heart [8].

Associations of Gnal with chemical compounds

  • Effects of subchronic lithium chloride treatment on G-protein subunits (Golf, Ggamma7) and adenylyl cyclase expressed specifically in the rat striatum [9].
  • The present study focused on the effect of subchronic lithium chloride treatment on G-proteins (Golf, Ggamma7) and adenylyl cyclase type V, which are expressed specifically in the rat striatum [9].
  • Changes in PKA activity and Gs alpha and Golf alpha levels after amphetamine- and cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization [10].
  • The experiments described in this paper were undertaken to examine the requirements of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and phosphatidylcholine for hepatic steroid 5 alpha-reduction, previously proposed by Golf and Graef (Golf, S. W. and Graef, V. (1978) J. Steroid Biochem. 9, 369-371) [11].

Physical interactions of Gnal


Other interactions of Gnal


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gnal

  • By western blot analysis, we demonstrated that Golf protein is expressed in the placenta and its expression levels are developmentally regulated [6].
  • Electron microscopy and postembedding immunocytochemistry on rapidly frozen, freeze-substituted specimens of rat olfactory epithelia were used to study the subcellular localization of the transduction proteins Golf alpha and type III adenylyl cyclase [12].


  1. Golf: an olfactory neuron specific-G protein involved in odorant signal transduction. Jones, D.T., Reed, R.R. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Biochemical characterization of three stimulatory GTP-binding proteins. The large and small forms of Gs and the olfactory-specific G-protein, Golf. Jones, D.T., Masters, S.B., Bourne, H.R., Reed, R.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning and tissue distribution of a new rat olfactory receptor-like (OL2). Blache, P., Gros, L., Salazar, G., Bataille, D. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Locus on chromosome 18 cosegregates with diabetes in the BB/OK rat subline. Klöting, I., Vogt, L., Serikawa, T. Diabète & métabolisme. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Developmental expression of G-proteins and adenylyl cyclase in peripheral olfactory systems. Light microscopic and freeze-substitution electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. Menco, B.P., Tekula, F.D., Farbman, A.I., Danho, W. J. Neurocytol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression of Golf in the rat placenta: Possible implication in olfactory receptor transduction. Itakura, S., Ohno, K., Ueki, T., Sato, K., Kanayama, N. Placenta (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Changes in G protein levels in the hippocampus and the striatum of rat brain after chronic treatment with haloperidol and sulpiride. Shin, C.J., Kim, Y.S., Park, J.B., Juhnn, Y.S. Neuropharmacology (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Olfactory receptors, Golf alpha and adenylyl cyclase mRNA expressions in the rat heart during ontogenic development. Ferrand, N., Pessah, M., Frayon, S., Marais, J., Garel, J.M. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of subchronic lithium chloride treatment on G-protein subunits (Golf, Ggamma7) and adenylyl cyclase expressed specifically in the rat striatum. Miki, M., Hamamura, T., Ujike, H., Lee, Y., Habara, T., Kodama, M., Ohashi, K., Tanabe, Y., Kuroda, S. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Changes in PKA activity and Gs alpha and Golf alpha levels after amphetamine- and cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. Crawford, C.A., Choi, F.Y., Kohutek, J.L., Yoshida, S.T., McDougall, S.A. Synapse (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Some properties of progesterone 5 alpha-reductase solubilized from rat liver microsomes. Ichihara, K., Tanaka, C. Biochem. Int. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Ultrastructural localization of olfactory transduction components: the G protein subunit Golf alpha and type III adenylyl cyclase. Menco, B.P., Bruch, R.C., Dau, B., Danho, W. Neuron (1992) [Pubmed]
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