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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Smell

  • OBJECTIVES: To assess whether olfactory deficits are present in the general Guamanian Chamorro population and to evaluate olfaction in each of the four neurodegenerative disease syndromes of Guam: ALS, pure parkinsonism, pure dementia, and the combined parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC) [1].
  • To address this further we assessed olfaction by three methods-a smell identification test ("UPSIT") in 58 patients and 135 controls; olfactory-evoked response (OEP) to H2S in 15 patients, and pathological examination of olfactory bulbs obtained from 8 cadavers [2].
  • BACKGROUND: The relative contribution to the olfactory dysfunction of the lesions in the specific brain regions involved in olfaction compared with the lesions scattered all over the rest of the brain has not been fully clarified yet in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) [3].
  • It is hypothesized that oxymetazoline needs to be applied locally to the area of the olfactory cleft in order to significantly improve olfaction during the course of the common cold [4].
  • Side effects associated with carbimazole treatment are reported to include impaired taste, impaired olfaction, and hearing loss [5].

Psychiatry related information on Smell


High impact information on Smell

  • Prolactin-releasing stimuli not only include the nursing stimulus, but light, audition, olfaction, and stress can serve a stimulatory role [8].
  • In olfaction, the X-linked OCNC1 channel subunit is subject to random inactivation and is essential for odorant-evoked activity [9].
  • A cGMP signaling pathway that is used in olfaction maintains str-2 expression after the initial decision has been made [10].
  • There is considerable evidence for the involvement of adenylate cyclase in vertebrate olfactory transduction, and some data indicate that phospholipase C may have a central role in insect olfaction [11].
  • The distribution of 3H-substance P receptors suggests that substance P is probably involved in the control of sensory processes such as pain, vision, audition and olfaction [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Smell


Biological context of Smell


Anatomical context of Smell


Gene context of Smell

  • Or83b encodes a broadly expressed odorant receptor essential for Drosophila olfaction [27].
  • Using tissue-specific and inducible promoters, we show that additional copies of mbk-1 can impair olfaction cell-autonomously in mature, fully differentiated neurons and that this impairment is reversible [28].
  • Odorant-specific requirements for arrestin function in Drosophila olfaction [29].
  • The tax-4 and tax-2 genes of Caenorhabditis elegans are essential for normal olfaction, gustation, and thermosensation, suggesting that they have a role in sensory transduction [30].
  • The rdgB gene of Drosophila: a link between vision and olfaction [31].


  1. Olfactory dysfunction in Guamanian ALS, parkinsonism, and dementia. Ahlskog, J.E., Waring, S.C., Petersen, R.C., Esteban-Santillan, C., Craig, U.K., O'Brien, P.C., Plevak, M.F., Kurland, L.T. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Olfactory disorder in motor neuron disease. Hawkes, C.H., Shephard, B.C., Geddes, J.F., Body, G.D., Martin, J.E. Exp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Olfactory dysfunction and extent of white matter abnormalities in multiple sclerosis: a clinical and MR study. Zorzon, M., Ukmar, M., Bragadin, L.M., Zanier, F., Antonello, R.M., Cazzato, G., Zivadinov, R. Mult. Scler. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of the nasal decongestant oxymetazoline on human olfactory and intranasal trigeminal function in acute rhinitis. Hummel, T., Rothbauer, C., Pauli, E., Kobal, G. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Evaluation of olfactory and auditory system effects of the antihyperthyroid drug carbimazole in the Long-Evans rat. Genter, M.B. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Very early changes in olfactory functioning due to Alzheimer's disease and the role of apolipoprotein E in olfaction. Bacon, A.W., Bondi, M.W., Salmon, D.P., Murphy, C. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of olfaction in food preference as evaluated in an animal model. Lien, C.W., Hisatsune, T., Kaminogawa, S. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Prolactin: structure, function, and regulation of secretion. Freeman, M.E., Kanyicska, B., Lerant, A., Nagy, G. Physiol. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. X inactivation of the OCNC1 channel gene reveals a role for activity-dependent competition in the olfactory system. Zhao, H., Reed, R.R. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Lateral signaling mediated by axon contact and calcium entry regulates asymmetric odorant receptor expression in C. elegans. Troemel, E.R., Sagasti, A., Bargmann, C.I. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Rapid kinetics of second messenger formation in olfactory transduction. Breer, H., Boekhoff, I., Tareilus, E. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Autoradiographic distribution of substance P receptors in rat central nervous system. Quirion, R., Shults, C.W., Moody, T.W., Pert, C.B., Chase, T.N., O'Donohue, T.L. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Sulphydryl groups and the quinone receptor in insect olfaction and gustation. Singer, G., Rozental, J.M., Norris, D.M. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  14. Isolation of an olfactory cDNA: similarity to retinol-binding protein suggests a role in olfaction. Lee, K.H., Wells, R.G., Reed, R.R. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Carnosine-related dipeptides in the mammalian brain. Bonfanti, L., Peretto, P., De Marchis, S., Fasolo, A. Prog. Neurobiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Genomics spawns novel approaches to mosquito control. Justice, R.W., Biessmann, H., Walter, M.F., Dimitratos, S.D., Woods, D.F. Bioessays (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Calcium-sensitive particulate guanylyl cyclase as a modulator of cAMP in olfactory receptor neurons. Moon, C., Jaberi, P., Otto-Bruc, A., Baehr, W., Palczewski, K., Ronnett, G.V. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Requirement for a phospholipase C in odor response: overlap between olfaction and vision in Drosophila. Riesgo-Escovar, J., Raha, D., Carlson, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Preferential expression of biotransformation enzymes in the olfactory organs of Drosophila melanogaster, the antennae. Wang, Q., Hasan, G., Pikielny, C.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. The olfactory adenylyl cyclase III is expressed in rat germ cells during spermiogenesis. Gautier-Courteille, C., Salanova, M., Conti, M. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Concurrent etonitazene and water intake in rats: role of taste, olfaction, and auditory stimuli. Carroll, M.E., Meisch, R.A. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of inhalation of cadmium on the rat olfactory system: behavior and morphology. Sun, T.J., Miller, M.L., Hastings, L. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Clinical testing of olfaction reassessed. Pinching, A.J. Brain (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Dopamine receptor coupling to adenylyl cyclase in rat olfactory pathway: a combined pharmacological-radioautographic approach. Coronas, V., Krantic, S., Jourdan, F., Moyse, E. Neuroscience (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Neonatally bulbectomized rats with new olfactory-neocortical connections are anosmic. Butler, A.B., Graziadei, P.P., Monti Graziadei, G.A., Slotnick, B.M. Neurosci. Lett. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Morituri te salutant? Olfactory signal transduction and the role of phosphoinositides. Elsaesser, R., Paysan, J. J. Neurocytol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Or83b encodes a broadly expressed odorant receptor essential for Drosophila olfaction. Larsson, M.C., Domingos, A.I., Jones, W.D., Chiappe, M.E., Amrein, H., Vosshall, L.B. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Characterization of Caenorhabditis elegans homologs of the Down syndrome candidate gene DYRK1A. Raich, W.B., Moorman, C., Lacefield, C.O., Lehrer, J., Bartsch, D., Plasterk, R.H., Kandel, E.R., Hobert, O. Genetics (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Odorant-specific requirements for arrestin function in Drosophila olfaction. Merrill, C.E., Sherertz, T.M., Walker, W.B., Zwiebel, L.J. J. Neurobiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Functional reconstitution of a heteromeric cyclic nucleotide-gated channel of Caenorhabditis elegans in cultured cells. Komatsu, H., Jin, Y.H., L'Etoile, N., Mori, I., Bargmann, C.I., Akaike, N., Ohshima, Y. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. The rdgB gene of Drosophila: a link between vision and olfaction. Woodard, C., Alcorta, E., Carlson, J. J. Neurogenet. (1992) [Pubmed]
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