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Gene Review

esr1  -  estrogen receptor 1

Danio rerio

Synonyms: ER, ER-alpha, ER[a], ESR, Estradiol receptor, ...
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High impact information on esr1

  • Due to lack of the identity box (I-box) and activation function 2 (AF-2) domain, zFF1B lacks transactivation function and fails to synergize with estrogen receptor (ER) in regulating promoters [1].
  • Estradiol-binding sites are nearly identical in zfERs and their human homologs, suggesting that zebrafish will serve as a good model system for studying human ER-binding drugs [2].
  • E(subscript)2(/subscript) treatment of U251-MG glial cells cotransfected with zebrafish ER-alpha and the Aro-B promoter-luciferase reporter resulted in a 60- to 80-fold stimulation of luciferase activity [3].
  • To this end, the ER-negative glial cell line U251-MG was transfected with the three zebrafish ER subtypes and the Aro-B promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene [3].
  • Dose-response analyses with ethynylestradiol (EE(subscript)2(/subscript)), estrone (E(subscript)1(/subscript)), alpha-zeralenol, and genistein showed that estrogenic potency of these agents markedly differed depending on the ER subtype in the assay [3].

Biological context of esr1


Anatomical context of esr1

  • These data also suggest that radial glial cells may express low amounts of ER that escaped detection until now [7].
  • In testes, expression of the estrogen receptor- as well as ZP2-mRNA remained unchanged for the entire experiment, except for the individuals exposed for 17 days, which displayed elevated expression levels of ZP2 [8].

Associations of esr1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of esr1

  • In 24 h postfertilization (hpf) embryos, high levels of esr2a and esr2b and low levels of esr1 mRNAs are detected in the epidermis, pectoral fin buds, hatching gland and, to a lesser extent, developing brain [4].
  • As measured by increased P450aromB mRNA, a functional estrogen response system is first detected 24-48 h post-fertilization (hpf), consistent with the onset of estrogen receptor (ER) expression (alpha, beta, and gamma) [10].
  • LOECs for vitellogenin as well as estrogen receptor alpha expression were found to be 2.5 ng/l already after 4 d of exposure [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of esr1

  • In conclusion, we demonstrate that our bioassay provides a fast, reliable, sensitive, and efficient test for evaluating estrogenic potency of endocrine disruptors on ER subtypes in a glial context [3].
  • By means of RT-PCR, a sequence fragment of the zebrafish estrogen receptor alpha was cloned and sequenced [8].


  1. A zebrafish ftz-F1 (Fushi tarazu factor 1) homologue requires multiple subdomains in the D and E regions for its transcriptional activity. Liu, D., Chandy, M., Lee, S.K., Le Dréan, Y., Ando, H., Xiong, F., Woon Lee, J., Hew, C.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Homology-modeled ligand-binding domains of zebrafish estrogen receptors alpha, beta1, and beta2: from in silico to in vivo studies of estrogen interactions in Danio rerio as a model system. Costache, A.D., Pullela, P.K., Kasha, P., Tomasiewicz, H., Sem, D.S. Mol. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Assessment of xenoestrogens using three distinct estrogen receptors and the zebrafish brain aromatase gene in a highly responsive glial cell system. Le Page, Y., Scholze, M., Kah, O., Pakdel, F. Environ. Health Perspect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression patterns of three estrogen receptor genes during zebrafish (Danio rerio) development: evidence for high expression in neuromasts. Tingaud-Sequeira, A., André, M., Forgue, J., Barthe, C., Babin, P.J. Gene Expr. Patterns (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Developmental estrogenic exposure in zebrafish (Danio rerio): I. Effects on sex ratio and breeding success. Hill, R.L., Janz, D.M. Aquat. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of binary mixtures of xenoestrogens on gonadal development and reproduction in zebrafish. Lin, L.L., Janz, D.M. Aquat. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Relationships between aromatase and estrogen receptors in the brain of teleost fish. Pellegrini, E., Menuet, A., Lethimonier, C., Adrio, F., Gueguen, M.M., Tascon, C., Anglade, I., Pakdel, F., Kah, O. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of 17a-ethinylestradiol on the expression of three estrogen-responsive genes and cellular ultrastructure of liver and testes in male zebrafish. Islinger, M., Willimski, D., Völkl, A., Braunbeck, T. Aquat. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of endocrine-disrupting effects in aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates: report from the European IDEA project. Segner, H., Caroll, K., Fenske, M., Janssen, C.R., Maack, G., Pascoe, D., Schäfers, C., Vandenbergh, G.F., Watts, M., Wenzel, A. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Differential tissue distribution, developmental programming, estrogen regulation and promoter characteristics of cyp19 genes in teleost fish. Callard, G.V., Tchoudakova, A.V., Kishida, M., Wood, E. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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