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Gene Review

vtg1  -  vitellogenin 1

Danio rerio

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Disease relevance of vtg1

  • With E2, the most sensitive end points were feminization of offspring (at 0.1 nM) and increased VTG production in males (at 0.32 nM) [1].
  • At 1 nM, decreased F, survival, increased F, body length and weight, VTG-related edema and kidney lesions, and inhibited spermatogenesis were observed [1].
  • Results from this study demonstrate that reproduction in zebrafish is affected by waterborne exposure to B[a]P and that altered transcription of genes important in regulating reproduction (20beta-HSD, CYP19A2 and vitellogenin) may be one of the underlying mechanisms of B[a]P-induced reproductive toxicity [2].

High impact information on vtg1

  • Ontogenetic expression of zp2 and zp3 mRNAs was first detected at 3 wk postfertilization, which was about 5 wk earlier than initial vtg1 expression, indicating that ovary development was earlier than vitellogenesis [3].
  • The level of vtg1 mRNA was about 100x and 1000x higher than those of vtg2 and vtg3 mRNAs [4].
  • Two Vg preparations, with apparent masses of 600 kDa (600 Vg) and 400 kDa (400 Vg), were isolated from the plasma of fish treated with estradiol-17beta (E(2)) by various chromatographic procedures [5].
  • Full-length cDNAs encoding the 600 VgA, 600 VgB, and 400 Vg were isolated from a liver cDNA library of E(2) treated fish [5].
  • Immunological analyses demonstrated that the 400 Vg underwent no change in native mass after being incorporated into oocytes [5].

Biological context of vtg1


Anatomical context of vtg1


Associations of vtg1 with chemical compounds

  • In the present study, both zebrafish and medaka vitellogenin genes have been isolated and used as a biomarker to compare the two small aquarium fish in response to estrogen treatment and thus to evaluate the two fish models in development of a biomonitoring system for environmental estrogens [6].
  • At 72, 96, and 120 hpf, vtg1 was significantly induced for all EE2 concentrations [8].
  • Suppression of vg in female liver following exposure to 50 or 500 ng/L of the synthetic androgen 17beta-trenbolone occurs at similar magnitude for both vg1 and vg3 isoforms [15].
  • Interestingly, the predicted vitellogenin has no polyserine phosvitin domain [16].
  • In all EE10 exposure groups (EE10, EE10+NP10 and EE10+NP100), increasing NP concentration acted antagonistically to the action of EE in terms of VTG induction at 60dph [11].

Other interactions of vtg1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of vtg1


  1. Effects of the estrogen agonist 17beta-estradiol and antagonist tamoxifen in a partial life-cycle assay with zebrafish (Danio rerio). van der Ven, L.T., van den Brandhof, E.J., Vos, J.H., Wester, P.W. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Altered gene expression: a mechanism for reproductive toxicity in zebrafish exposed to benzo[a]pyrene. Hoffmann, J.L., Oris, J.T. Aquat. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Tandem-repeated Zebrafish zp3 genes possess oocyte-specific promoters and are insensitive to estrogen induction. Liu, X., Wang, H., Gong, Z. Biol. Reprod. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Hepatic and extrahepatic expression of vitellogenin genes in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Wang, H., Tan, J.T., Emelyanov, A., Korzh, V., Gong, Z. Gene (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Multiple vitellogenins (Vgs) in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis): identification and characterization of three functional Vg genes and their circulating and yolk protein products. Sawaguchi, S., Koya, Y., Yoshizaki, N., Ohkubo, N., Andoh, T., Hiramatsu, N., Sullivan, C.V., Hara, A., Matsubara, T. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular cloning of zebrafish and medaka vitellogenin genes and comparison of their expression in response to 17beta-estradiol. Tong, Y., Shan, T., Poh, Y.K., Yan, T., Wang, H., Lam, S.H., Gong, Z. Gene (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of 17a-ethinylestradiol on the expression of three estrogen-responsive genes and cellular ultrastructure of liver and testes in male zebrafish. Islinger, M., Willimski, D., Völkl, A., Braunbeck, T. Aquat. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Vitellogenin 1 mRNA as an early molecular biomarker for endocrine disruption in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio). Muncke, J., Eggen, R.I. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of phytosterols on zebrafish reproduction in multigeneration test. Nakari, T., Erkomaa, K. Environ. Pollut. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Ultrastructure and lipid content of the liver of the zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio, related to vitellogenin synthesis. Peute, J., van der Gaag, M.A., Lambert, J.G. Cell Tissue Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of binary mixtures of xenoestrogens on gonadal development and reproduction in zebrafish. Lin, L.L., Janz, D.M. Aquat. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Short-term exposure to low concentrations of the synthetic androgen methyltestosterone affects vitellogenin and steroid levels in adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio). Andersen, L., Goto-Kazeto, R., Trant, J.M., Nash, J.P., Korsgaard, B., Bjerregaard, P. Aquat. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Estrogenicity of municipal effluents assessed in vivo and in vitro. Nakari, T. Environ. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of selected xenoestrogens on liver peroxisomes, vitellogenin levels and spermatogenic cell proliferation in male zebrafish. Ortiz-Zarragoitia, M., Cajaraville, M.P. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of two vitellogenin genes (vg1 and vg3) in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) liver in response to exposure to steroidal estrogens and androgens. Miracle, A., Ankley, G., Lattier, D. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. A zebrafish vitellogenin gene (vg3) encodes a novel vitellogenin without a phosvitin domain and may represent a primitive vertebrate vitellogenin gene. Wang, H., Yan, T., Tan, J.T., Gong, Z. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Vitellogenin expression in zebrafish Danio rerio: evaluation by histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and in situ mRNA hybridisation. Van der Ven, L.T., Holbech, H., Fenske, M., Van den Brandhof, E.J., Gielis-Proper, F.K., Wester, P.W. Aquat. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Developmental estrogenic exposure in zebrafish (Danio rerio): I. Effects on sex ratio and breeding success. Hill, R.L., Janz, D.M. Aquat. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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