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Gene Review

ESR1  -  estrogen receptor 1

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of ESR1

  • Chimeric VTGII-CAT genes were cotransfected into LMH chicken hepatoma cells along with an estrogen receptor expression vector, and transient CAT expression was assayed after culturing the cells in the absence or presence of estrogen [1].
  • Superinfection resistance studies suggest that the variant virus recognizes the subgroup B receptor on chicken cells and the subgroup E receptor on quail cells [2].
  • Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro studies we have analyzed the interactions of the estrogen receptor with genes from three different systems: the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), the chicken and xenopus vitellogenin genes and the rabbit uteroglobin gene [3].

High impact information on ESR1


Biological context of ESR1

  • About 2%-6% of thyroid-stimulating-hormone-immunopositive and 1%-2% prolactin-immunopositive cells expressed ERalpha at later stages of embryonic development, but no growth-hormone-positive or adrenocorticotropic-hormone-positive cells expressed ERalpha during the embryonic period [8].
  • The proportion of ERalpha(+) cells in the pituitary was about 6% at E8.5; expression increased to 22% by E18.5 of gestation, with no additional change until hatching [8].
  • The first highly conserved ER region is not present in the truncated v-erbA gene, but shares some homology with the N-terminal end of the GR [9].
  • A chicken oviduct cDNA clone containing the complete open reading frame of the oestrogen receptor (ER) has been isolated and sequenced [9].
  • The three guanine residues in each half of the palindrome are protected against methylation by dimethylsulfate after incubation with ER, but not with glucocorticoid (GR) or progesterone (PR) receptors [10].

Anatomical context of ESR1


Associations of ESR1 with chemical compounds

  • Double-labeling of ERalpha and pituitary hormones showed that the dominant cell types expressing ERalpha were gonadotrophs immunopositive for luteinizing hormone (LH); the proportion of ERalpha(+) cells expressing LH increased throughout gestation and reached approximately 57% at hatching [8].
  • Progesterone and estradiol participate in the regulation of several reproductive functions through interaction with intracellular progesterone receptors (PR) and estrogen receptors (ER), respectively [13].
  • An increase in the chicken ER mRNA levels was observed 24 h after stimulation with progesterone [14].
  • In vivo secondary stimulation of chicken oviduct total RNA with diethylstilbestrol does not induce chicken ER mRNA [14].
  • Furthermore we could show that the estrogen-receptor from chick oviduct can be transformed from a DNA-non-binding to a DNA-binding form, similar to other steroid-hormone receptors [15].

Physical interactions of ESR1

  • Depleting the estradiol receptors from the cell and nuclear extracts by means of estradiol-receptor antibodies covalently bound to Matrex beads reduced the stimulation of the vitellogenin gene by 40% [16].
  • Previous studies showed that VBP can bind simultaneously with the estrogen receptor to the putative complex regulatory element E1D [17].

Regulatory relationships of ESR1


Other interactions of ESR1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ESR1


  1. Mutational studies reveal a complex set of positive and negative control elements within the chicken vitellogenin II promoter. Seal, S.N., Davis, D.L., Burch, J.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Selection of an avian retrovirus mutant with extended receptor usage. Taplitz, R.A., Coffin, J.M. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Binding of steroid receptors to the HREs of mouse mammary tumor virus, chicken and xenopus vitellogenin and rabbit uteroglobin genes: correlation with induction. Slater, E.P., Posseckert, G., Chalepakis, G., Redeuihl, G., Beato, M. J. Steroid Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. An estrogen receptor from Xenopus laevis liver possibly connected with vitellogenin synthesis. Westley, B., Knowland, J. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. A significant lag in the induction of ovalbumin messenger RNA by steroid hormones: a receptor translocation hypothesis. Palmiter, R.D., Moore, P.B., Mulvihill, E.R. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Estrogenic activity of the insecticide kepone on the chicken oviduct. Palmiter, R.D., Mulvihill, E.R. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. The glucocorticoid receptor is a key regulator of the decision between self-renewal and differentiation in erythroid progenitors. Wessely, O., Deiner, E.M., Beug, H., von Lindern, M. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Ontogeny of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and its co-localization with pituitary hormones in the pituitary gland of chick embryos. Liu, J., Cui, S. Cell Tissue Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. The chicken oestrogen receptor sequence: homology with v-erbA and the human oestrogen and glucocorticoid receptors. Krust, A., Green, S., Argos, P., Kumar, V., Walter, P., Bornert, J.M., Chambon, P. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Hormonal regulation of vitellogenin genes: an estrogen-responsive element in the Xenopus A2 gene and a multihormonal regulatory region in the chicken II gene. Slater, E.P., Redeuilh, G., Beato, M. Mol. Endocrinol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Distribution of estrogen and progesterone receptors and steroid-regulated gene products in the chick oviduct. Isola, J.J. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Magnal steroid hormone receptors during egg formation in the domestic hen. Okulicz, W.C., Stake, P.E., Fredrickson, T.N. Steroids (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Changes in the content of progesterone receptor isoforms and estrogen receptor alpha in the chick brain during embryonic development. Camacho-Arroyo, I., González-Arenas, A., González-Agüero, G., Guerra-Araiza, C., González-Morán, G. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Structural organization and regulation of the chicken estrogen receptor. Maxwell, B.L., McDonnell, D.P., Conneely, O.M., Schulz, T.Z., Greene, G.L., O'Malley, B.W. Mol. Endocrinol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. The general validity of the subunit model of the progesterone receptor from chick oviduct appears questionable. Comparison of progesterone and estrogen receptor. Gschwendt, M. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. In vitro secondary activation (memory effect) of avian vitellogenin II gene in isolated liver nuclei. Jost, J.P., Moncharmont, B., Jiricny, J., Saluz, H., Hertner, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. The bZip transcription factor vitellogenin-binding protein is post transcriptional down regulated in chicken liver. Smidt, M.P., Snippe, L., van Keulen, G., Ab, G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Estrogen receptor is not primarily responsible for altered responsiveness of ovalbumin mRNA induction in the oviduct from genetically selected high- and low-albumen chicken lines. Muramatsu, T., Hiramatsu, H., Park, H.M., Okumura, J., Kawashima, M., Miyoshi, S. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Inducibility of the avidin gene by progesterone is suppressed during estrogen-induced cytodifferentiation. Joensuu, T., Niemelä, A., Kunnas, T., Salomaa, S., Alho, H., Vilja, P., Ylikomi, T., Kulomaa, M., Tuohimaa, P. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Preferential binding of estrogen-receptor complex to a region containing the estrogen-dependent hypomethylation site preceding the chicken vitellogenin II gene. Jost, J.P., Seldran, M., Geiser, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Estrogen receptor in hen oviduct chromatin, digested by micrococcal nuclease. Massol, N., Lebeau, M.C., Baulieu, E.E. Nucleic Acids Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen receptor alpha in the growing and regressing ovaries of newly hatched chicks. Morán, M.G. J. Mol. Histol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Transformation of the estrogen-receptor complex from chick oviduct in 2 steps. Gschwendt, M., Kittstein, W. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular cloning of the estrogen and progesterone receptors of the American alligator. Katsu, Y., Bermudez, D.S., Braun, E.L., Helbing, C., Miyagawa, S., Gunderson, M.P., Kohno, S., Bryan, T.A., Guillette, L.J., Iguchi, T. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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