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Gene Review

GBX2  -  gastrulation brain homeobox 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Gastrulation and brain-specific homeobox protein 2, Homeobox protein GBX-2
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Disease relevance of GBX2


High impact information on GBX2

  • Otx2 and Gbx2 can repress the expression of each other and contribute to the formation of the posterior border of the tectum [2].
  • A threshold requirement for Gbx2 levels in hindbrain development [3].
  • In contrast, Fgf8b repressed Otx2 expression, but upregulated Gbx2 and Irx2 expression in the mesencephalon [4].
  • Overexpression of interleukin 6, a downstream target of the GBX2 homeobox gene, has been linked to the progression of prostate cancer [5].
  • In the present studies, specific primer sets were designed for reverse transcription-PCR detection of the expression of GBX1 versus GBX2 in human prostate cancer [1].

Biological context of GBX2


Anatomical context of GBX2


Associations of GBX2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of GBX2

  • Previous work on prostate carcinoma cells has shown that IL6 expression is activated therein by the homeodomain protein GBX2, which we found to be absent in HL cells [11].

Other interactions of GBX2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GBX2

  • One of these PCR products was determined by sequencing to be the Gastrulation and brain specific-2 gene (GBX2) [8].
  • Quantitative RT-PCR and RNA in situ analyses indicate that the presence of a neo-resistance cassette impairs normal Gbx2 splicing thus reducing wild-type Gbx2 mRNA levels to 6-10% of normal levels in all domains and stages examined [3].


  1. Down-regulation of homeobox gene GBX2 expression inhibits human prostate cancer clonogenic ability and tumorigenicity. Gao, A.C., Lou, W., Isaacs, J.T. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Regionalization of the optic tectum: combinations of gene expression that define the tectum. Nakamura, H. Trends Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. A threshold requirement for Gbx2 levels in hindbrain development. Waters, S.T., Lewandoski, M. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Inductive signal and tissue responsiveness defining the tectum and the cerebellum. Sato, T., Araki, I., Nakamura, H. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Inhibition of constitutively activated Stat3 signaling pathway suppresses growth of prostate cancer cells. Ni, Z., Lou, W., Leman, E.S., Gao, A.C. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. The HOX complex neighbored by the EVX gene, as well as two other homeobox-containing genes, the GBX-class and the EN-class, are located on the same chromosomes 2 and 7 in humans. Matsui, T., Hirai, M., Hirano, M., Kurosawa, Y. FEBS Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Enhanced GBX2 expression stimulates growth of human prostate cancer cells via transcriptional up-regulation of the interleukin 6 gene. Gao, A.C., Lou, W., Isaacs, J.T. Clin. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization and sequence analysis of the human homeobox-containing gene GBX2. Lin, X., Swaroop, A., Vaccarino, F.M., Murtha, M.T., Haas, M., Ji, X., Ruddle, F.H., Leckman, J.F. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Fgf8 and Gbx2 induction concomitant with Otx2 repression is correlated with midbrain-hindbrain fate of caudal prosencephalon. Hidalgo-Sánchez, M., Simeone, A., Alvarado-Mallart, R.M. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Cell mixing between the embryonic midbrain and hindbrain. Jungbluth, S., Larsen, C., Wizenmann, A., Lumsden, A. Curr. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. HLXB9 activates IL6 in Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines and is regulated by PI3K signalling involving E2F3. Nagel, S., Scherr, M., Quentmeier, H., Kaufmann, M., Zaborski, M., Drexler, H.G., MacLeod, R.A. Leukemia (2005) [Pubmed]
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