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Gene Review

GBX2  -  gastrulation brain homeobox 2

Gallus gallus

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High impact information on GBX2

  • Ectopic expression of GBX2 in growth factor-dependent myeloblasts induces monocytic features and independence from exogenous cytokines, reflecting distinct features of AMV-transformed cells [1].
  • The homeobox gene GBX2, a target of the myb oncogene, mediates autocrine growth and monocyte differentiation [1].
  • GBX2 activation by c-Myb requires signal transduction emanating from the cell surface while the leukemogenic AMV v-Myb constitutively induces the GBX2 gene [1].
  • When Irx2 is misexpressed with Fgf8a in the chick midbrain, the midbrain develops into cerebellum in conjunction with repression of Otx2 and induction of Gbx2 [2].
  • Specification of the meso-isthmo-cerebellar region: the Otx2/Gbx2 boundary [3].

Biological context of GBX2


Anatomical context of GBX2

  • Otx2, Gbx2, and Fgf8 expression patterns in the chick developing inner ear and their possible roles in otic specification and early innervation [5].
  • The relationship between Gbx2 and Fgf8 expression changed during inner ear development but was always related to the macula sacculi innervation and endolymphatic duct formation [5].
  • We show that GBX2 transcripts, as well as the protein, mark the presumptive hindbrain region [4].
  • After establishment of the brain vesicles GBX2 transcripts were also detected in distinct domains of the diencephalon [4].
  • In addition to neural sites of expression, GBX2 was found in several domains including the otic vesicle, the somitic mesoderm, the lateral foregut endoderm, the ventral limb bud ectoderm and in the feather buds [4].

Associations of GBX2 with chemical compounds

  • 2. The topographic analysis of Gbx2 expression on coronal and sagittal sections discriminated the positions and boundaries of diverse neuronal nuclei belonging to the dorsal thalamus from neighboring territories (the epithalamus, ventral thalamus, pretectum, and the underlying basal plate) [6].
  • The expression pattern of the transcription factor gene Gbx2 in the forebrain of chicken embryos (embryonic day 14) was mapped using digoxigenin-labeled riboprobes and compared with the expression of the transcription factors Pax6 and Nkx2 [6].

Other interactions of GBX2

  • We propose a new nomenclature to differentiate the vesicles and constrictions observed in the avian MH domain at stage HH10 and HH20, based on the localization of the Gbx2/Otx2 common boundary [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GBX2

  • At earlier stages of avian neural tube, those genes present a dynamic expression pattern and only at HH18-20 onwards, when the mesencephalic/metencephalic constriction is coincident with the Otx2/Gbx2 boundary, their expression domains become more defined [3].


  1. The homeobox gene GBX2, a target of the myb oncogene, mediates autocrine growth and monocyte differentiation. Kowenz-Leutz, E., Herr, P., Niss, K., Leutz, A. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. The prepattern transcription factor Irx2, a target of the FGF8/MAP kinase cascade, is involved in cerebellum formation. Matsumoto, K., Nishihara, S., Kamimura, M., Shiraishi, T., Otoguro, T., Uehara, M., Maeda, Y., Ogura, K., Lumsden, A., Ogura, T. Nat. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Specification of the meso-isthmo-cerebellar region: the Otx2/Gbx2 boundary. Hidalgo-Sánchez, M., Millet, S., Bloch-Gallego, E., Alvarado-Mallart, R.M. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of the homeobox gene GBX2 during chicken development. Niss, K., Leutz, A. Mech. Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Otx2, Gbx2, and Fgf8 expression patterns in the chick developing inner ear and their possible roles in otic specification and early innervation. Sánchez-Calderón, H., Martín-Partido, G., Hidalgo-Sánchez, M. Gene Expr. Patterns (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Gbx2 expression in the late embryonic chick dorsal thalamus. Martínez-de-la-Torre, M., Garda, A.L., Puelles, E., Puelles, L. Brain Res. Bull. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Comparative analysis of Otx2, Gbx2, Pax2, Fgf8 and Wnt1 gene expressions during the formation of the chick midbrain/hindbrain domain. Hidalgo-Sánchez, M., Millet, S., Simeone, A., Alvarado-Mallart, R.M. Mech. Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
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