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Gene Review

LIN9  -  lin-9 DREAM MuvB core complex component

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BARA, BARPsv, Beta subunit-associated regulator of apoptosis, HuLin-9, Lin-9, ...
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Disease relevance of LIN9

  • Herein, we examine characteristics and determinants of child malnutrition in the districts of Bara and Rautahat of the Terai region of Nepal. The sample studied consists of 510 rural children ranging in age from 3 to 10 yr [1].
  • These data suggested that in these experiments the bradycardia of TGS was due to an increase in cardiac vagal tone [2].
  • A 'TGS' classification for supratentorial brain glioma is proposed, based on three parameters: tumour extension (T), histopathological grade (G) and extent of surgical resection (S) [3].
  • Motor cortex stimulation with a ramp-shaped pulse train allowed successive determination of a threshold for localized seizure activity (TLS) and for generalized seizure activity (TGS) [4].
  • Peritonitis appeared to be related to a poor BAD-C score (Bara Adapted Dialysis Compliance), i.e. combination of clinical status and clinic visits (P=0.07) [5].

High impact information on LIN9

  • Closely related RNA silencing phenomena such as posttranscriptional and transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS and TGS), quelling and RNA interference (RNAi) represent different forms of a conserved ancestral process [6].
  • The human synMuv-like protein LIN-9 is required for transcription of G2/M genes and for entry into mitosis [7].
  • In contrast, hLin-9 was not involved in pRB-mediated inhibition of cell cycle progression or repression of E2F-dependent transactivation [8].
  • In addition, hLin-9 synergized with pRB and Cbfal to transactivate an osteoblast-specific reporter gene [8].
  • RNAi-mediated knockdown of Lin-9 can substitute for the loss of pRB in transformation of human primary fibroblasts [8].

Biological context of LIN9

  • These data suggest a critical role for human LIN-9, together with B-MYB, in the activation of genes that are essential for progression into mitosis [7].
  • Here, we report that mammalian BARA/LIN-9 is a predominantly nuclear protein that inhibits cell proliferation [9].
  • A mutant allele of BARA/LIN-9 rescues the cdk4-/- phenotype by releasing the repression on E2F-regulated genes [9].
  • 2. The heart rate response to cooling the face (0 degrees C, trigeminal cutaneous receptor stimulation, TGS) and to a brief isometric muscle contraction was studied in fourteen healthy young adults (8 males, 6 females) during controlled ventilation at supine rest [2].
  • When isometric muscle contraction was initiated during TGS the 60% MVC but not the 40% MVC was able to significantly decrease R-R interval and hence increase heart rate [2].

Anatomical context of LIN9

  • These results suggest that, in the event of human atherosclerosis, TGS-beta 1 is most effective in enhancing collagen synthesis, and PDGF modulates collagen metabolism by stimulating a cell division of smooth muscle cells with a resultant increase of collagenous protein, especially of type V collagen [10].

Associations of LIN9 with chemical compounds

  • Valproate increased both TLS and TGS to the same extent [4].
  • Phenytoin and carbamazepine clearly elevated the TGS [4].
  • Molecular complexation between a set of five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and a N,N',N"-trisubstituted guanidinium sweetener (TGS) was studied by monitoring the intrinsic fluorescence of the MAbs [11].
  • Phenobarbital and oxazepam elevated both thresholds, but the effect on TGS was more pronounced [4].
  • The homochiral inorganic-organic hybrid compound (H(3)NHPA)(SnCl(3))(2)(H(2)O)(3) [1, (S)-4-(4'-aminophenyl)-2-aminobutanoic acid diammonium trichloride stannite triaqua] has a TGS (triglycine sulfate)-like structure [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LIN9

  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed binding of both LIN-9 and B-MYB to the promoters of G2/M regulated genes [7].
  • Comparison with other animal models suggested that elevation of TLS reflects an effect on seizure initiation, whereas elevation of TGS above TLS reflects an effect on seizure propagation [4].


  1. Characteristics and determinants of child nutritional status in Nepal. Martorell, R., Leslie, J., Moock, P.R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Exercise and diving, two conflicting stimuli influencing cardiac vagal tone in man. Al-Ani, M., Powell, L., West, J., Townend, J., Coote, J.H. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Staging of supratentorial hemispheric glioma using tumour extension, histopathological grade and extent of surgical resection. Iacoangeli, M., Roselli, R., Prezioso, A., Scerrati, M., Rossi, G.F. The British journal of surgery. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of the pharmacodynamics of several antiepileptic drugs in a direct cortical stimulation model of anticonvulsant effect in the rat. Hoogerkamp, A., Vis, P.W., Danhof, M., Voskuyl, R.A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. An African community-based chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis programme. Katz, I.J., Sofianou, L., Hopley, M. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. RNA silencing and genome regulation. Almeida, R., Allshire, R.C. Trends Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. The human synMuv-like protein LIN-9 is required for transcription of G2/M genes and for entry into mitosis. Osterloh, L., von Eyss, B., Schmit, F., Rein, L., H??bner, D., Samans, B., Hauser, S., Gaubatz, S. EMBO J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibition of oncogenic transformation by mammalian Lin-9, a pRB-associated protein. Gagrica, S., Hauser, S., Kolfschoten, I., Osterloh, L., Agami, R., Gaubatz, S. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. A mutant allele of BARA/LIN-9 rescues the cdk4-/- phenotype by releasing the repression on E2F-regulated genes. Sandoval, R., Xue, J., Tian, X., Barrett, K., Pilkinton, M., Ucker, D.S., Raychaudhuri, P., Kineman, R.D., Luque, R.M., Baida, G., Zou, X., Valli, V.E., Cook, J.L., Kiyokawa, H., Colamonici, O.R. Exp. Cell Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Collagen synthesis of human arterial smooth muscle cells: effects of platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta 1 and interleukin-1. Okada, Y., Katsuda, S., Watanabe, H., Nakanishi, I. Acta Pathol. Jpn. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Spectrofluorimetric study of the intermolecular complexation of monoclonal antibodies with the high potency sweetener N-(p-cyanophenyl)-N'-(diphenylmethyl) guanidineacetic acid. Droupadi, P.R., Anchin, J.M., Meyers, E.A., Linthicum, D.S. J. Mol. Recognit. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. A novel TGS-like inorganic-organic hybrid and a preliminary investigation of its possible ferroelectric behavior. Li, Y.H., Qu, Z.R., Zhao, H., Ye, Q., Xing, L.X., Wang, X.S., Xiong, R.G., You, X.Z. Inorganic chemistry. (2004) [Pubmed]
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