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Sema3a  -  sema domain, immunoglobulin domain (Ig),...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Sema III, Semaphorin III, Semaphorin-3A
 
 
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Disease relevance of Sema3a

  • Dysreflexic hypertension was significantly higher with NGF overexpression in lumbosacral segments compared with GFP, whereas similar overexpression of Sema3a significantly reduced noxious CRD-evoked hypertension [1].
  • To examine the relationship between collapsin and sensory axon growth, we examined the pattern of mRNA expression of collapsin's mammalian paralogue, Semaphorin III (Sema III), and compared it to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) axon pathways in the developing rat embryo [2].
 

High impact information on Sema3a

  • Neuropilin is a semaphorin III receptor [3].
  • Semaphorin III (Sema III) is a secreted protein that in vitro causes neuronal growth cone collapse and chemorepulsion of neurites, and in vivo is required for correct sensory afferent innervation and other aspects of development [3].
  • Sema III also causes the collapse of cultured rat sensory growth cones, which can be inhibited by activation of the cGMP pathway [4].
  • Neuropilin-1 mediates collapsin-1/semaphorin III inhibition of endothelial cell motility: functional competition of collapsin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-165 [5].
  • By performing tissue recombinant experiments and analyzing the effects of signaling molecules, we found that early oral and dental epithelia, which instruct tooth formation, and epithelial Wnt4 induce Sema3a expression in the presumptive dental mesenchyme before the arrival of the first dental nerve fibers [6].
 

Biological context of Sema3a

 

Anatomical context of Sema3a

  • Although variations in expression of Sema3a mRNA have been revealed in neurons in both the central and peripheral nervous systems in this context, relatively little is known about NP-1 expression patterns [9].
  • Expression of the gene encoding the chemorepellent semaphorin III is induced in the fibroblast component of neural scar tissue formed following injuries of adult but not neonatal CNS [10].
  • Scar tissue, formed after penetrating injuries to the lateral olfactory tract (LOT), cortex, perforant pathway, and spinal cord, contained numerous spindle-shaped cells expressing high levels of sema III mRNA [10].
  • Neuropilin-1, a sema III receptor, was expressed in injured neurons with projections to the lesion site, in a subpopulation of scar-associated cells and in blood vessels around the scar [10].
  • This suggests a role for Sema3a secreted by brown adipocytes in the guidance of axons toward their correct targets [7].
 

Other interactions of Sema3a

  • In addition, Sema A and Sema IV, but not Sema III, Sema E, or Sema H, are able to orient in vitro the growth of olfactory bulb axons; Sema IV has a strong repulsive action, whereas Sema A appears to attract those axons [11].

References

  1. Genetic manipulation of intraspinal plasticity after spinal cord injury alters the severity of autonomic dysreflexia. Cameron, A.A., Smith, G.M., Randall, D.C., Brown, D.R., Rabchevsky, A.G. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. The guidance molecule semaphorin III is expressed in regions of spinal cord and periphery avoided by growing sensory axons. Wright, D.E., White, F.A., Gerfen, R.W., Silos-Santiago, I., Snider, W.D. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Neuropilin is a semaphorin III receptor. Kolodkin, A.L., Levengood, D.V., Rowe, E.G., Tai, Y.T., Giger, R.J., Ginty, D.D. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Conversion of neuronal growth cone responses from repulsion to attraction by cyclic nucleotides. Song, H., Ming, G., He, Z., Lehmann, M., McKerracher, L., Tessier-Lavigne, M., Poo, M. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Neuropilin-1 mediates collapsin-1/semaphorin III inhibition of endothelial cell motility: functional competition of collapsin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-165. Miao, H.Q., Soker, S., Feiner, L., Alonso, J.L., Raper, J.A., Klagsbrun, M. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Coordination of trigeminal axon navigation and patterning with tooth organ formation: epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and epithelial Wnt4 and Tgfbeta1 regulate semaphorin 3a expression in the dental mesenchyme. Kettunen, P., Løes, S., Furmanek, T., Fjeld, K., Kvinnsland, I.H., Behar, O., Yagi, T., Fujisawa, H., Vainio, S., Taniguchi, M., Luukko, K. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Sema3a is produced by brown adipocytes and its secretion is reduced following cold acclimation. Giordano, A., Coppari, R., Castellucci, M., Cinti, S. J. Neurocytol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of semaphorin III/collapsin-1 gene expression during peripheral nerve regeneration. Pasterkamp, R.J., Giger, R.J., Verhaagen, J. Exp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Peripheral, but not central, axotomy induces neuropilin-1 mRNA expression in adult large diameter primary sensory neurons. Gavazzi, I., Stonehouse, J., Sandvig, A., Reza, J.N., Appiah-Kubi, L.S., Keynes, R., Cohen, J. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of the gene encoding the chemorepellent semaphorin III is induced in the fibroblast component of neural scar tissue formed following injuries of adult but not neonatal CNS. Pasterkamp, R.J., Giger, R.J., Ruitenberg, M.J., Holtmaat, A.J., De Wit, J., De Winter, F., Verhaagen, J. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Chemoattraction and chemorepulsion of olfactory bulb axons by different secreted semaphorins. de Castro, F., Hu, L., Drabkin, H., Sotelo, C., Chédotal, A. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
 
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