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Gene Review

Arr1  -  Arrestin 1

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 3H10, ARR1, Arr, ArrA, Arrestin-1, ...
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Disease relevance of Arr1

  • Flies carrying each of these alleles underwent light-dependent retinal degeneration and displayed electrophysiological defects typical of previously identified arrestin mutants, including an allele encoding a protein that lacks the major Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase site [1].
  • We propose that the sequestering of arrestin to membranes is a possible mechanism for retinal disease associated with previously identified rhodopsin alleles in humans [1].

High impact information on Arr1

  • In this paper, we develop a theory that describes the kinetics of inactivation of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin based on the rate of arrestin binding and test the theory using a combination of genetic and electrophysiological techniques in Drosophila photoreceptors [2].
  • The results demonstrate that the rate of arrestin binding determines the kinetics of receptor inactivation in vivo and thus is the event that controls signal amplification at the first step of this G protein-coupled transduction cascade [2].
  • Analysis of the light response in these mutants shows that the Arr1 and Arr2 proteins are mediators of rhodopsin inactivation and are essential for the termination of the phototransduction cascade in vivo [3].
  • A role for the light-dependent phosphorylation of visual arrestin [1].
  • This proposal is supported by the finding that rhodopsin 2 and arrestin 1, two photoreceptor-cell-specific genes, are also expressed in male gonads [4].

Biological context of Arr1


Anatomical context of Arr1

  • CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that rhodopsin and arrestin protein synthesis in Drosophila photoreceptors do not fluctuate on a daily cycle [8].
  • The loss of immunoreactive rhabdomeric rhodopsin only occurred when rhodopsin was depleted from the plasma membrane such that it was found within the rhabdomere at stoichiometric levels with arrestin [9].

Associations of Arr1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Arr1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Arr1

  • Proteins were resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subjected to immunoblot analysis using antibodies directed to rhodopsin, NinaA, Arr1, and Arr2 [8].
  • (2) Rabbit antibodies raised against Musca PRI, against bovine arrestin, and against a synthetic peptide based on the Drosophila PRI sequence stained the Drosophila and Musca PRIs specifically on 1 and 2-dimensional Western immunoblots [12].
  • One of these clones has been identified, by sequence analysis, as the structural gene (Arr) for a Drosophila homolog of human arrestin [13].
  • 1 microm frozen sections were cut on an ultracryomicrotome, then stained with antibodies specific for rhodopsin or arrestin [9].


  1. A role for the light-dependent phosphorylation of visual arrestin. Alloway, P.G., Dolph, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Arrestin binding determines the rate of inactivation of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin in vivo. Ranganathan, R., Stevens, C.F. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Arrestin function in inactivation of G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin in vivo. Dolph, P.J., Ranganathan, R., Colley, N.J., Hardy, R.W., Socolich, M., Zuker, C.S. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Novel Gq alpha isoform is a candidate transducer of rhodopsin signaling in a Drosophila testes-autonomous pacemaker. Alvarez, C.E., Robison, K., Gilbert, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Arrestin1 mediates light-dependent rhodopsin endocytosis and cell survival. Satoh, A.K., Ready, D.F. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Odorant-specific requirements for arrestin function in Drosophila olfaction. Merrill, C.E., Sherertz, T.M., Walker, W.B., Zwiebel, L.J. J. Neurobiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Isolation and structure of an arrestin gene from Drosophila. Smith, D.P., Shieh, B.H., Zuker, C.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of rhodopsin and arrestin during the light-dark cycle in Drosophila. Hartman, S.J., Menon, I., Haug-Collet, K., Colley, N.J. Mol. Vis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Epitope masking of rhabdomeric rhodopsin during endocytosis-induced retinal degeneration. Orem, N.R., Dolph, P.J. Mol. Vis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Phototransduction: shedding light on translocation. Hardie, R.C. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Exploratory Activity in Drosophila Requires the kurtz Nonvisual Arrestin. Liu, L., Davis, R.L., Roman, G. Genetics (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Phosrestin I, an arrestin homolog that undergoes light-induced phosphorylation in dipteran photoreceptors. Komori, N., Usukura, J., Kurien, B., Shichi, H., Matsumoto, H. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Twenty Drosophila visual system cDNA clones: one is a homolog of human arrestin. Hyde, D.R., Mecklenburg, K.L., Pollock, J.A., Vihtelic, T.S., Benzer, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
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