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Gene Review

GRIA4  -  glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 4

Gallus gallus

Synonyms: GLUR4/D, GluR4, GluR4d
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High impact information on GRIA4


Biological context of GRIA4

  • In summary, these results indicate that GluR3 and GluR4 are the major AMPA receptor subunits involved in excitatory synaptic transmission in principal cells during the perinatal period [3].
  • To identify chick GluR4 isoforms, we used PCR to amplify a C-terminal region that is the site of alternative splicing in rat [4].

Anatomical context of GRIA4

  • Pre-incubation of the cells with (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), an agonist of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), which are coupled to inhibition of AC, inhibited the effect of FSK and of SKF38393 on AMPA receptor activity, GluR4 phosphorylation and expression at the plasma membrane [1].
  • We conclude that GluR4 is phosphorylated upon PKC activation and/or stimulation of AMPA receptors in cultured amacrine cells [5].
  • GluR1-positive neurons and fibers were found in the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, but only GluR2/3-positive neurons and GluR4-positive fibers were detected into that nucleus [6].
  • Finally, we found that the expression levels of GluR4 at the neurites increased between 5 h in vitro and 7 DIV, near the period of synapse formation [7].
  • The functionality of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors in chick embryo retina cells during development in vitro was studied by using Co(2+) uptake, and these data were correlated with the expression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4 [7].

Associations of GRIA4 with chemical compounds

  • 32P-labelling of GluR4 increased upon AMPA receptor stimulation or cell treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) before stimulating with kainate [5].
  • By contrast, phosphorylation of GluR4 was not changed when PKC was inhibited by treating the cells with the selective PKC inhibitor GF 109203X before stimulation with kainate [5].
  • This study was undertaken to characterize the AMPA (GluR1, GluR2/3, and GluR4), KA (GluR5/6/7), and NMDA (NR1) ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits and to determine their distribution during the development of the chick retina by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry [8].

Other interactions of GRIA4


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GRIA4

  • The expression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4 during development was detected by immunofluorescence mainly at the perinuclear region of the cells, and the number of positive cells increased from 5 h in vitro to 7 DIV, and remained relatively constant until 14 DIV [7].


  1. Metabotropic glutamate and dopamine receptors co-regulate AMPA receptor activity through PKA in cultured chick retinal neurones: effect on GluR4 phosphorylation and surface expression. Gomes, A.R., Cunha, P., Nuriya, M., Faro, C.J., Huganir, R.L., Pires, E.V., Carvalho, A.L., Duarte, C.B. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Contrasting molecular composition and channel properties of AMPA receptors on chick auditory and brainstem motor neurons. Ravindranathan, A., Donevan, S.D., Sugden, S.G., Greig, A., Rao, M.S., Parks, T.N. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. AMPA receptor subunit expression in chick vestibular nucleus neurons. Popratiloff, A., Wang, Y.X., Narvid, J., Petralia, R.S., Giaume, C., Peusner, K.D. J. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. New isoforms of the chick glutamate receptor subunit GluR4: molecular cloning, regional expression and developmental analysis. Ravindranathan, A., Parks, T.N., Rao, M.S. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Phosphorylation of GluR4 AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit by protein kinase C in cultured retina amacrine neurons. Carvalho, A.L., Correia, S., Faro, C.J., Duarte, C.B., Carvalho, A.P., Pires, E.M. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression of AMPA-type glutamate receptors in pretectal nuclei of the chick brain. Toledo, C.A., Pezzini, R., Santos, R.C., Britto, L.R. Brain Res. Bull. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Development of chick retina cells in culture: cobalt entry through AMPA receptors and expression of GluR4 AMPA receptor subunit. Cristóvão, A.J., Carvalho, C.M. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Ionotropic glutamate receptors during the development of the chick retina. Silveira dos Santos Bredariol, A., Hamassaki-Britto, D.E. J. Comp. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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