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Gene Review

SYT1  -  synaptotagmin I

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of SYT1


High impact information on SYT1

  • In the presence of suboptimal amounts of S100betabeta, FK506, cyclosporin A, and cypermethrin (but not rapamycin) also increased NF-kappaB activity, as measured by immunofluorescence of cells stained with antibody to the active subunit (p65) and by immunoblotting of nuclear extracts [2].
  • This activity is common to v-Rel, c-Rel, p52 (p49/lyt10), RelA (p65) and the p50 subunit of NF-kappa B. The second promotes transcriptional activation in undifferentiated F9 cells and maps 3' to the RHR, a region essential for the transforming activity of v-Rel [3].
  • Our results suggest that contact with targets upregulates syt I gene expression during neuromuscular synapse formation in vivo, and that a later stage of synaptic maturation involves changes in SVP isoform abundance [4].
  • Target contact regulates expression of synaptotagmin genes in spinal motor neurons in vivo [4].
  • Extirpation of the limb bud prior to motor axon outgrowth eliminates the increase in syt I mRNA ipsilaterally [4].

Chemical compound and disease context of SYT1

  • Synaptotagmin I (Syt I), a possible Ca(2+) sensor for neurotransmitter release, was suggested to be involved in neurite outgrowth of chick dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, based on introduction of the antibody against the C2A domain into cells via mechanical lesions [5].

Biological context of SYT1


Anatomical context of SYT1

  • RNase protection assays for p65 and the two isoforms of synaptophysin II (Bixby, 1992) show essentially coordinate increases of these three mRNAs in embryonic forebrain during the peak period of synaptogenesis (E17 to E20) [11].
  • BACKGROUND: The integral synaptic vesicle protein and putative calcium sensor, synaptotagmin 1 (STG), has also been implicated in synaptic vesicle (SV) recovery [6].
  • These results indicate that the p65 and c-Rel could be components of the protein complexes that bind to the kappa B-like sequence and this binding could contribute to the progressively activated expression of the lysozyme gene during the terminal differentiation of macrophages [12].
  • These results showed that the C2A domain of synaptotagmin I or II plays a crucial role in neurite outgrowth [1].
  • The optic tract was stained for SV2 and synaptotagmin between E7 and E12, for syntaxin until the posthatching period [13].

Associations of SYT1 with chemical compounds

  • In fact, overexpression of p65 and c-Rel stimulates expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene controlled by the lysozyme promoter [12].
  • Six monoclonal antibodies, directed against glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor subunits, the intracellular receptor-associated protein gephyrin, synaptotagmin, and synaptophysin were used to determine the initial appearance and distribution of their antigens [14].
  • Moreover, GluR2/3 and GluR4 receptor subunit clusters in principal cell bodies and dendrites were localized at sites contacted by biocytin-labeled vestibular nerve terminals and synaptotagmin-labeled terminals [15].

Other interactions of SYT1

  • The induced retina displays the typical multilayered cytoarchitecture and expresses late neuronal differentiation markers such as synaptotagmin and islet-1 [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SYT1


  1. Functional involvement of synaptotagmin I/II C2A domain in neurite outgrowth of chick dorsal root ganglion neuron. Kabayama, H., Takei, K., Fukuda, M., Ibata, K., Mikoshiba, K. Neuroscience (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Neuronal survival activity of s100betabeta is enhanced by calcineurin inhibitors and requires activation of NF-kappaB. Alexanian, A.R., Bamburg, J.R. FASEB J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Two novel functions associated with the Rel oncoproteins: DNA replication and cell-specific transcriptional activation. Ishikawa, H., Asano, M., Kanda, T., Kumar, S., Gélinas, C., Ito, Y. Oncogene (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Target contact regulates expression of synaptotagmin genes in spinal motor neurons in vivo. Campagna, J.A., Prevette, D., Oppenheim, R.W., Bixby, J.L. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of synaptotagmin I or II promotes neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Fukuda, M., Mikoshiba, K. Neurosci. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. 'Fractional recovery' analysis of a presynaptic synaptotagmin 1-anchored endocytic protein complex. Khanna, R., Li, Q., Stanley, E.F. PLoS ONE (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Neuron-specific expression of a synaptotagmin gene in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Burke, R.D., Osborne, L., Wang, D., Murabe, N., Yaguchi, S., Nakajima, Y. J. Comp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Developmental expression of amphiphysin in the retinotectal system of the chick: from mRNA to protein. Grabs, D., Bergmann, M., Rager, G. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Developmental expression of dynamin in the chick retinotectal system. Bergmann, M., Grabs, D., Rager, G. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of neuronal markers suggests heterogeneity of chick sympathoadrenal cells prior to invasion of the adrenal anlagen. Ernsberger, U., Esposito, L., Partimo, S., Huber, K., Franke, A., Bixby, J.L., Kalcheim, C., Unsicker, K. Cell Tissue Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Coordinate and noncoordinate regulation of synaptic vesicle protein genes during embryonic development. Lou, X., Bixby, J.L. Dev. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Transcriptional activation of the chicken lysozyme gene by NF-kappa Bp65 (RelA) and c-Rel, but not by NF-kappa Bp50. Phi van, L. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression of presynaptic proteins is closely correlated with the chronotopic pattern of axons in the retinotectal system of the chick. Bergmann, M., Grabs, D., Rager, G. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Formation of synaptic specializations in the inner plexiform layer of the developing chick retina. Hering, H., Kröger, S. J. Comp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. AMPA receptor subunit expression in chick vestibular nucleus neurons. Popratiloff, A., Wang, Y.X., Narvid, J., Petralia, R.S., Giaume, C., Peusner, K.D. J. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Multiple functions of fibroblast growth factor-8 (FGF-8) in chick eye development. Vogel-Höpker, A., Momose, T., Rohrer, H., Yasuda, K., Ishihara, L., Rapaport, D.H. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Vesicle-associated proteins and calcium in nerve terminals of chick ciliary ganglia during development of facilitation. Lin, Y.Q., Brain, K.L., Nichol, K.A., Morgan, J.J., Bennett, M.R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Isolation of the chicken NF-kappa B p65 subunit-encoding cDNA and characterization of its products. Ikeda, T., Honjo, K., Hirota, Y., Onodera, T. Gene (1993) [Pubmed]
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