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Gene Review

CD2  -  CD2 molecule

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of CD2


High impact information on CD2

  • The structural and functional similarities of the ASFV gene product to CD2, a cellular protein involved in cell-cell adhesion and T-cell-mediated immune responses, suggested a possible role for this gene in tissue tropism and/or immune evasion in the swine host [1].
  • T lymphocytes, defined by their TCR alpha/beta or CD2 expression, were found in low numbers and mainly in the periphery of the graft [2].
  • Phenotypic characterization of CE3 cells revealed expression of CD2, CD25 (interleukin-2 receptor), SLA class I and SLA class II [3].
  • The virus possesses genes similar to CD2, IkappaB, C-type lectins, MyD116/gadd34/gamma, 34.5, bcl-2/bax, iap, NifS, and ERV1, which may allow a viral regulation of cell adhesion, apoptosis, and redox metabolism, as well as of the host immune response against ASFV infection [4].
  • An African swine fever virus gene with similarity to the T-lymphocyte surface antigen CD2 mediates hemadsorption [5].

Biological context of CD2


Anatomical context of CD2

  • NK cells were susceptible to treatment with monoclonal antibodies to CD2 (PT11), CD8 (PT8) and Ia plus complement (C), as well as with antiserum to asialo-GM1 (ASGM1) plus C [7].
  • The p180+ T cells have a distribution in lymphoid tissues that is distinct from that of T cells that express the CD2, CD4 or CD8 molecules [8].
  • Expression of CD44 on lymph node cells was found to be correlated with the expression of CD2 and sIgM [9].
  • For the first time in swine, low-level CD2 expression is reported on a subpopulation of B cells which are activated during pregnancy [10].
  • Tissue eosinophils were negative for swC1a, CD2, CD8, while all of them reacted with swC3 [11].

Associations of CD2 with chemical compounds

  • All characterized CD2 domains, including the amino-terminal signal sequence, IgV, hinge, IgC2, stalk, transmembrane, and proline-rich carboxy cytoplasmic domains, are highly conserved in the ASFV gene [5].
  • Immunohistochemical detection of SWC3, CD2, CD3, CD4 and CD8 antigens in paraformaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded porcine lymphoid tissue [12].
  • In both the surface (luminal) epithelium and the subepithelial connective tissue, higher numbers of CD2 than CD3 positive cells were found (p <or= 0.01) [13].

Regulatory relationships of CD2

  • Single stainings showed that cells positive for the CD2 and CD8 antigen were almost as numerous in pneumonic lesions as CD3 positive cells whereas cells expressing the CD4 antigen were rare [14].
  • Perforin positive lymphocytes expressed both CD2 and CD8alpha, most were small dense lymphocytes (SDL) and up to 90% were CD3 negative [15].

Other interactions of CD2

  • Membrane antigens SLA-DR and CD45 were found by day 22, membrane molecules MG-7, 8/1, CD1, CD2 and 74-22 by day 28, Gamma/delta T cells were found initially in extrathymic sites (in the liver) [16].
  • Assays for the specific surface antigens CD45, CD2, CD4, CD8, CD1, MHC class II, and N1 were employed to develop immunophenotypic profiles within the gated lymphocyte clusters from each TIL and PBL suspension [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CD2

  • Flow cytometry analyses showed that the mAb recognized a subset of T lymphocytes of which the majority expressed no CD2, CD4 and CD8 whilst the minority bore CD2 and CD8 [18].
  • The numbers of cells expressing CD2, CD4, CD8, and CD172 (the 74-22-15 (SWC3) antibody is now known to be specific for CD172), MHC class II, and CD25 were quantified using immunohistochemistry [19].


  1. Deletion of a CD2-like gene, 8-DR, from African swine fever virus affects viral infection in domestic swine. Borca, M.V., Carrillo, C., Zsak, L., Laegreid, W.W., Kutish, G.F., Neilan, J.G., Burrage, T.G., Rock, D.L. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. The main infiltrating cell in xenograft rejection is a CD4+ macrophage and not a T lymphocyte. Wallgren, A.C., Karlsson-Parra, A., Korsgren, O. Transplantation (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. A porcine CD8+ T cell clone with heterotypic specificity for foot-and-mouth disease virus. Rodríguez, A., Ley, V., Ortuño, E., Ezquerra, A., Saalmüller, A., Sobrino, F., Sáiz, J.C. J. Gen. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of African swine fever virus. Yáñez, R.J., Rodríguez, J.M., Nogal, M.L., Yuste, L., Enríquez, C., Rodriguez, J.F., Viñuela, E. Virology (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. An African swine fever virus gene with similarity to the T-lymphocyte surface antigen CD2 mediates hemadsorption. Borca, M.V., Kutish, G.F., Afonso, C.L., Irusta, P., Carrillo, C., Brun, A., Sussman, M., Rock, D.L. Virology (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Experimental Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in piglets with different types and levels of specific protection: immunophenotypic analysis of lymphocyte subsets in the circulation and respiratory mucosal lymphoid tissue. Faldyna, M., Nechvatalova, K., Sinkora, J., Knotigova, P., Leva, L., Krejci, J., Toman, M. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression of T-cell associated antigens by porcine natural killer cells. Pescovitz, M.D., Lowman, M.A., Sachs, D.H. Immunology (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression on porcine gamma delta lymphocytes of a phylogenetically conserved surface antigen previously restricted in expression to ruminant gamma delta T lymphocytes. Carr, M.M., Howard, C.J., Sopp, P., Manser, J.M., Parsons, K.R. Immunology (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression and regulation of the porcine CD44 molecule. Yang, H., Binns, R.M. Cell. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Dynamic changes in the lymphocyte subpopulations of pig uterine lymph nodes. Bischof, R.J., Lee, R., Lee, C.S., Meeusen, E. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. The surface phenotype of swine blood and tissue eosinophil granulocytes. Magyar, A., Mihalik, R., Oláh, I. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunohistochemical detection of SWC3, CD2, CD3, CD4 and CD8 antigens in paraformaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded porcine lymphoid tissue. Tingstedt, J.E., Tornehave, D., Lind, P., Nielsen, J. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The endometrium of the anoestrous female pig: studies on infiltration by cells of the immune system. Jiwakanon, J., Persson, E., Dalin, A.M. Reprod. Domest. Anim. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Cellular immune responses in the lungs of pigs infected in utero with PRRSV: an immunohistochemical study. Tingstedt, J.E., Nielsen, J. Viral Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Perforin expression can define CD8 positive lymphocyte subsets in pigs allowing phenotypic and functional analysis of natural killer, cytotoxic T, natural killer T and MHC un-restricted cytotoxic T-cells. Denyer, M.S., Wileman, T.E., Stirling, C.M., Zuber, B., Takamatsu, H.H. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Early ontogeny of immune cells and their functions in the fetal pig. Trebichavský, I., Tlaskalová, H., Cukrowska, B., Splíchal, I., Sinkora, J., Oeháková, Z., Sinkora, M., Pospísil, R., Kováøù, F., Charley, B., Binns, R., White, A. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Immunophenotypic characterization of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from melanomatous and non-melanomatous Sinclair miniature swine. Morgan, C.D., Measel, J.W., Amoss, M.S., Rao, A., Greene, J.F. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of the porcine gammadelta T-cell receptor structure and cellular distribution by monoclonal antibody PPT27. Yang, H., Parkhouse, R.M. Immunology (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. The influence of different management systems and age on intestinal morphology, immune cell numbers and mucin production from goblet cells in post-weaning pigs. Brown, D.C., Maxwell, C.V., Erf, G.F., Davis, M.E., Singh, S., Johnson, Z.B. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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