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Chemical Compound Review

AC1O51IP     N-[(E)-1-[(3R,4R,5S,6R)-5- [(2R,3R,4R,5R...

Synonyms: Asialo GM1 ganglioside, Ganglioside, asialo GM1
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Disease relevance of Asialo GM1 ganglioside

  • Asialo GM1, as a cell-surface marker in acute lymphoblastic leukemia [1].
  • Depletion of the NK cells in vivo with antiserum to asialo GM1 rendered both SCID and CB17 control mice much more sensitive to MCMV infection, as shown by titers of virus in organs and by survival curves [2].
  • Depletion of either CD8+ lymphocytes or asialo GM1+ cells that remained in the mice after CD4+ cell depletion had no effect on the ability of the mice to resolve PCP after E. coli aerosol treatments [3].
  • These results suggest that an increased number of hepatic asialo GM1-positive cells after administration of OK432 plays an important role in protecting against metastasis of colon carcinoma in the liver [4].
  • Monoclonal IgM antibodies to GM1 and asialo-GM1 in chronic neuropathies cross-react with Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides [5].

Psychiatry related information on Asialo GM1 ganglioside


High impact information on Asialo GM1 ganglioside

  • Antibody to asialo-Gm1 and other antigens on sperm react with and impair lymphoid cells [7].
  • Together, the data suggest that in class I-deficient mice vaccinated against T. gondii, the absence of CD8+ effector cells is compensated for by the emergence of a population of NK1.1+ and asialo GM1+ cells which lack cytolytic activity, and that the protective action of these cells against the parasite is attributable to IFN-gamma production [8].
  • Vaccinated beta 2m-deficient mice, but not control heterozygotes, showed a five- to six-fold expansion in spleen cell number and approximately 40% of the splenocytes were found to express the NK markers NK1.1 and asialo GM1 [8].
  • Thus, resolution of PCP in CD4+ lymphocyte-depleted mice by heat-treated E. coli aerosols was not dependent on either CD8+ or asialo GM1+ cells but was dependent on Thy-1+CD4-CD8- lymphocytes and on the participation of TNF [3].
  • The antitumor action of IL-1/IL-2 treatment was abolished or markedly reduced in mice treated with antibodies to CD4 or CD8 antigens, whereas antibodies to asialo-GM1 were ineffective [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Asialo GM1 ganglioside


Biological context of Asialo GM1 ganglioside

  • The phenotype of the cell population capable of mediating resistance to MCMV was that of a nylon wool-nonadherent, asialo GM1+, NK 1.2+, Ly-5+, Thy-1-, Ia-, low density lymphocyte; this is the phenotype of an NK cell [15].
  • These lymphocytes are characterized by being G-10 nonadherent, nylon wool adherent, sIg+, FcR+, Thy 1.2-, asialo GM1-, and the immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes of both chromosomes are rearranged [16].
  • Similar to the cells induced in vivo by IL-2, the precursors of the cells mediating ADCC were asialo GM1+ whereas the effectors were mainly nonadherent, Thy-1+ cells [17].
  • Antibody directed to the neutral glycolipid "asialo GM1" was found to react with the majority of thymus lymphoid cells lacking characteristic T cell markers in mice at an early embryonic stage (13 days of gestation) [18].
  • Because this antibody to asialo GM1 does not impair other detectable immunologic mechanisms, these data support the hypothesis that NK cells act as a natural resistance mechanism to a number of virus infections, but suggest that their relative importance may vary from virus to virus [19].

Anatomical context of Asialo GM1 ganglioside

  • Cell surface marker analysis reveals that NK cell lines are Thy 1.2+, Lt-1-2-, T200+, asialo GM1+, and asialo GM2+ [20].
  • Characterization of effectors indicated that the killing was not related to Lyt-1+ or Lyt-2+ cells (T cells) but was associated with cells bearing NK markers (asialo GM1, NK-1.2+, and NK-2.1+) [21].
  • Such characteristic cytotoxic spectra, as well as serological phenotypes (Thy-1+, Lyt-1-2-, asialo GM1-positive, T200+, TdT-, Fc receptor-positive) indicated that these LGL clones exactly represent endogenous NK cells, rather than a variety of anomalous killer cells generated in various culture conditions [22].
  • We report here that spleens from SCID mice have undergone phenotypic expansion of cells bearing the NK-2 and asialo GM1 markers (70-80%) characteristic of NK cells and this expansion is accompanied by a 3-4-fold enrichment in NK cytolytic activity over their normal C.B-17 littermates [23].
  • Thy-1+ cells also lacked differentiation antigens of most other types of leukocytes, except they were rich in asialo GM1 [24].

Associations of Asialo GM1 ganglioside with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Asialo GM1 ganglioside


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Asialo GM1 ganglioside


  1. Asialo GM1, as a cell-surface marker in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Schwarting, G.A., Parkinson, D.R., Munson, D., Zielinski, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Natural killer (NK) cell response to virus infections in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. The stimulation of NK cells and the NK cell-dependent control of virus infections occur independently of T and B cell function. Welsh, R.M., Brubaker, J.O., Vargas-Cortes, M., O'Donnell, C.L. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Resolution of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in CD4+ lymphocyte-depleted mice given aerosols of heat-treated Escherichia coli. Harmsen, A.G., Chen, W. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibition of hepatic metastasis of colon carcinoma by asialo GM1--positive cells in the liver. Shiratori, Y., Nakata, R., Okano, K., Komatsu, Y., Shiina, S., Kawase, T., Sugimoto, T., Omata, M., Tanaka, M. Hepatology (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Monoclonal IgM antibodies to GM1 and asialo-GM1 in chronic neuropathies cross-react with Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides. Wirguin, I., Suturkova-Milosevic, L., Della-Latta, P., Fisher, T., Brown, R.H., Latov, N. Ann. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Thy 1+ asialo GM1+ dendritic epidermal cells in skin defense mechanisms of vaccinia virus-infected mice. Ikeda, S., Tominaga, T., Nishimura, C. Arch. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, opportunistic infections, and malignancies in male homosexuals. A hypothesis of etiologic factors in pathogenesis. Sonnabend, J., Witkin, S.S., Purtilo, D.T. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Emergence of NK1.1+ cells as effectors of IFN-gamma dependent immunity to Toxoplasma gondii in MHC class I-deficient mice. Denkers, E.Y., Gazzinelli, R.T., Martin, D., Sher, A. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Combined interleukin 1/interleukin 2 therapy of mice injected with highly metastatic Friend leukemia cells: host antitumor mechanisms and marked effects on established metastases. Ciolli, V., Gabriele, L., Sestili, P., Varano, F., Proietti, E., Gresser, I., Testa, U., Montesoro, E., Bulgarini, D., Mariani, G. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Role of asialo-GM1 positive liver cells from athymic nude or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-treated mice in suppressing colon-derived experimental hepatic metastasis. Cohen, S.A., Tzung, S.P., Doerr, R.J., Goldrosen, M.H. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Glycolipid changes in murine myelogenous leukemias: neutral glycolipids as markers for specific populations of leukemias. Ariga, T., Yoshida, K., Nemoto, K., Seki, M., Miyatani, N., Yu, R.K. Biochemistry (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Pili and lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bind to the glycolipid asialo GM1. Gupta, S.K., Berk, R.S., Masinick, S., Hazlett, L.D. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Ultrastructural lesions of ovine GM1 gangliosidosis. Murnane, R.D., Ahern-Rindell, A.J., Prieur, D.J. Mod. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Acute motor neuropathy with antibodies to GM1 ganglioside. Gregson, N.A., Jones, D., Thomas, P.K., Willison, H.J. J. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Adoptive transfer studies demonstrating the antiviral effect of natural killer cells in vivo. Bukowski, J.F., Warner, J.F., Dennert, G., Welsh, R.M. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Nuclear disintegration of target cells by killer B lymphocytes from tumor-bearing mice. Lopez, D.M., Blomberg, B.B., Padmanabhan, R.R., Bourguignon, L.Y. FASEB J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Induction of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in vivo by IFN-alpha and its antitumor efficacy against established B16 melanoma liver metastases when combined with specific anti-B16 monoclonal antibody. Eisenthal, A., Cameron, R.B., Rosenberg, S.A. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. The glycolipid asialo GM1 as a new differentiation antigen of fetal thymocytes. Habu, S., Kasai, M., Nagai, Y., Tamaoki, N., TAda, T., Herzenberg, L.A., Okumura, K. J. Immunol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Natural killer cell depletion enhances virus synthesis and virus-induced hepatitis in vivo. Bukowski, J.F., Woda, B.A., Habu, S., Okumura, K., Welsh, R.M. J. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Cloned cell lines with natural killer activity. Specificity, function, and cell surface markers. Dennert, G., Yogeeswaran, G., Yamagata, S. J. Exp. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Transfection of a rat cell line with the v-Ki-ras oncogene is associated with enhanced susceptibility to natural killer cell lysis. Johnson, P.W., Baubock, C., Roder, J.C. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Regulation of the growth and functions of cloned murine large granular lymphocyte lines by resident macrophages. Minato, N., Amagai, T., Yodoi, J., Diamanstein, T., Kano, S. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. An expanded population of natural killer cells in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) lack rearrangement and expression of T cell receptor genes. Lauzon, R.J., Siminovitch, K.A., Fulop, G.M., Phillips, R.A., Roder, J.C. J. Exp. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. The Thy-1-bearing cell of murine epidermis. A distinctive leukocyte perhaps related to natural killer cells. Romani, N., Stingl, G., Tschachler, E., Witmer, M.D., Steinman, R.M., Shevach, E.M., Schuler, G. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. The antitumor effects of the quinoline-3-carboxamide linomide on Dunning R-3327 rat prostatic cancers. Ichikawa, T., Lamb, J.C., Christensson, P.I., Hartley-Asp, B., Isaacs, J.T. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Lymphokine-activated killer cells in rats: analysis of progenitor and effector cell phenotype and relationship to natural killer cells. Vujanovic, N.L., Herberman, R.B., Olszowy, M.W., Cramer, D.V., Salup, R.R., Reynolds, C.W., Hiserodt, J.C. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Purification and characterization of glycosphingolipid-specific endoglycosidases (endoglycoceramidases) from a mutant strain of Rhodococcus sp. Evidence for three molecular species of endoglycoceramidase with different specificities. Ito, M., Yamagata, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. The glycosylceramidase in the murine intestine. Purification and substrate specificity. Kobayashi, T., Suzuki, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Molecular cloning of a novel alpha2,3-sialyltransferase (ST3Gal VI) that sialylates type II lactosamine structures on glycoproteins and glycolipids. Okajima, T., Fukumoto, S., Miyazaki, H., Ishida, H., Kiso, M., Furukawa, K., Urano, T., Furukawa, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Interferon gamma is involved in the recovery of athymic nude mice from recombinant vaccinia virus/interleukin 2 infection. Karupiah, G., Blanden, R.V., Ramshaw, I.A. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Interleukin 4 (B cell stimulatory factor 1) can mediate the induction of lymphokine-activated killer cell activity directed against fresh tumor cells. Mulé, J.J., Smith, C.A., Rosenberg, S.A. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  32. Cross-linking Fc receptors stimulate splenic non-B, non-T cells to secrete interleukin 4 and other lymphokines. Ben-Sasson, S.Z., Le Gros, G., Conrad, D.H., Finkelman, F.D., Paul, W.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Contribution of natural killer cells to inhibition of angiogenesis by interleukin-12. Yao, L., Sgadari, C., Furuke, K., Bloom, E.T., Teruya-Feldstein, J., Tosato, G. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Gangliosides as markers for murine lymphocyte subpopulations. Stein-Douglas, K., Schwarting, G.A., Naiki, M., Marcus, D.M. J. Exp. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  35. Asialo GM1(+) CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in costimulation blockade-resistant allograft rejection. Trambley, J., Bingaman, A.W., Lin, A., Elwood, E.T., Waitze, S.Y., Ha, J., Durham, M.M., Corbascio, M., Cowan, S.R., Pearson, T.C., Larsen, C.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Human hematopoiesis in SCID mice implanted with human adult cancellous bone. Sandhu, J.S., Clark, B.R., Boynton, E.L., Atkins, H., Messner, H., Keating, A., Hozumi, N. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Interleukin 18 induces the sequential activation of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes to protect syngeneic mice from transplantation with Meth A sarcoma. Micallef, M.J., Tanimoto, T., Kohno, K., Ikeda, M., Kurimoto, M. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Origin and differentiation of hepatic natural killer cells (pit cells). Vanderkerken, K., Bouwens, L., De Neve, W., Van den Berg, K., Baekeland, M., Delens, N., Wisse, E. Hepatology (1993) [Pubmed]
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