The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

pnt  -  pointed

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 0123/09, 0608/07, 0998/12, 3520, CG17077, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

High impact information on pnt

  • We present evidence that JUN interacts with the ETS domain protein Pointed to promote R7 formation [1].
  • The Drosophila gene pointed (pnt) encodes two putative transcription factors (P1 and P2) of the Ets family, which in the embryonic CNS are found exclusively in glial cells [2].
  • Therefore, both the pnt loss-of-function as well as the gain-of-function phenotype suggest that glial cells are able to induce 22C10 expression on neighboring neurons [2].
  • Loss of pnt function leads to poorly differentiated glial cells and a marked decrease in the expression of the neuronal antigen 22C10 in the MP2 neurons, which are known to interact intimately with the pntP1-expressing longitudinal glial cells [2].
  • This phosphorylation is both necessary and sufficient to abrogate transcriptional repression by Yan. Mae also regulates the activity of the transcriptional activator Pointed-P2 by a similar mechanism [3].

Biological context of pnt


Anatomical context of pnt


Associations of pnt with chemical compounds

  • Threonine 82 is part of a sequence that is conserved in Drosophila Pointed P2, an ets protein that has been shown both genetically and biochemically to mediate Ras signalling in Drosophila cells [12].

Physical interactions of pnt

  • Mae binding to Pnt-P2 occludes this docking surface, thereby acting to downregulate Pnt-P2 activity [13].

Regulatory relationships of pnt

  • While expression of pointedP2 is induced by Wingless signalling, seven up is initiated in a subset of the PointedP2 cells through the activity of the proneural genes [14].
  • In the midline glia pointedP2 in turn activates the transcription of argos, which encodes a diffusible negative regulator of EGF-receptor signalling [15].
  • This suggests that Pointed normally down-regulates EGF receptor signaling in the midline to generate patterning in the dorsal region [16].

Other interactions of pnt

  • The activity of at least one of these regulators, Pointed, is controlled by EGFR signalling [17].
  • Here we show that two antagonistic transcriptional regulators, Pointed, an activator, and Tramtrack69, a repressor, directly regulate the transcription of string [17].
  • This suggests that inducing cells, which can respond to Spitz they themselves produce, must somehow prevent activation of Pointed P2 [4].
  • EDL/MAE regulates EGF-mediated induction by antagonizing Ets transcription factor Pointed [4].
  • The members of the spitz group differ from one another: sim affects a more median strip of the ventral ectoderm than the other zygotic genes and pnt causes separation rather than deletion of pattern elements [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pnt


  1. JUN cooperates with the ETS domain protein pointed to induce photoreceptor R7 fate in the Drosophila eye. Treier, M., Bohmann, D., Mlodzik, M. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. The Ets transcription factors encoded by the Drosophila gene pointed direct glial cell differentiation in the embryonic CNS. Klaes, A., Menne, T., Stollewerk, A., Scholz, H., Klämbt, C. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Mae mediates MAP kinase phosphorylation of Ets transcription factors in Drosophila. Baker, D.A., Mille-Baker, B., Wainwright, S.M., Ish-Horowicz, D., Dibb, N.J. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. EDL/MAE regulates EGF-mediated induction by antagonizing Ets transcription factor Pointed. Yamada, T., Okabe, M., Hiromi, Y. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Wnt and TGFbeta signals subdivide the AbdA Hox domain during Drosophila mesoderm patterning. Bilder, D., Graba, Y., Scott, M.P. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. The ETS domain protein pointed-P2 is a target of MAP kinase in the sevenless signal transduction pathway. Brunner, D., Dücker, K., Oellers, N., Hafen, E., Scholz, H., Klämbt, C. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. The Drosophila gene pointed encodes two ETS-like proteins which are involved in the development of the midline glial cells. Klämbt, C. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Drosophila homeodomain protein REPO controls glial differentiation by cooperating with ETS and BTB transcription factors. Yuasa, Y., Okabe, M., Yoshikawa, S., Tabuchi, K., Xiong, W.C., Hiromi, Y., Okano, H. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. EGF receptor signaling induces pointed P1 transcription and inactivates Yan protein in the Drosophila embryonic ventral ectoderm. Gabay, L., Scholz, H., Golembo, M., Klaes, A., Shilo, B.Z., Klämbt, C. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. A group of genes required for pattern formation in the ventral ectoderm of the Drosophila embryo. Mayer, U., Nüsslein-Volhard, C. Genes Dev. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Function of ets genes is conserved between vertebrates and Drosophila. Albagli, O., Klaes, A., Ferreira, E., Leprince, D., Klämbt, C. Mech. Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Conserved mechanisms of Ras regulation of evolutionary related transcription factors, Ets1 and Pointed P2. Wasylyk, C., Bradford, A.P., Gutierrez-Hartmann, A., Wasylyk, B. Oncogene (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Mae inhibits Pointed-P2 transcriptional activity by blocking its MAPK docking site. Qiao, F., Harada, B., Song, H., Whitelegge, J., Courey, A.J., Bowie, J.U. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. A genetic hierarchy establishes mitogenic signalling and mitotic competence in the renal tubules of Drosophila. Sudarsan, V., Pasalodos-Sanchez, S., Wan, S., Gampel, A., Skaer, H. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Control of midline glia development in the embryonic Drosophila CNS. Scholz, H., Sadlowski, E., Klaes, A., Klämbt, C. Mech. Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Pointed, an ETS domain transcription factor, negatively regulates the EGF receptor pathway in Drosophila oogenesis. Morimoto, A.M., Jordan, K.C., Tietze, K., Britton, J.S., O'Neill, E.M., Ruohola-Baker, H. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Pointed and Tramtrack69 establish an EGFR-dependent transcriptional switch to regulate mitosis. Baonza, A., Murawsky, C.M., Travers, A.A., Freeman, M. Nat. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Alternative splicing removes an Ets interaction domain from Lozenge during Drosophila eye development. Jackson Behan, K., Fair, J., Singh, S., Bogwitz, M., Perry, T., Grubor, V., Cunningham, F., Nichols, C.D., Cheung, T.L., Batterham, P., Pollock, J.A. Dev. Genes Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities