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Gene Review

Fos  -  FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Cellular oncogene fos, Proto-oncogene c-Fos
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Disease relevance of Fos


Psychiatry related information on Fos

  • Orexin and MCH neurons express c-Fos differently after sleep deprivation vs. recovery and bear different adrenergic receptors [6].
  • The number of c-Fos-positive cells in the SON was significantly increased after 24 and 48 h of water deprivation [7].
  • Following copulation, Fos was preferentially augmented in the caudal ventral medulla (CVM), a region mediating descending inhibition of penile reflexes, and which may be regulated by a forebrain circuit that includes the medial preoptic area (MPOA) [8].
  • This study assessed the effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in rats on fever, behavioural depression, as measured by the social interaction test, and Fos expression in the brain [9].
  • Expression of Fos, Jun, and Krox family proteins in Alzheimer's disease [10].

High impact information on Fos

  • TGF-beta 1 inhibition of transin/stromelysin gene expression is mediated through a Fos binding sequence [11].
  • The Fos and Jun oncoproteins form dimeric complexes that stimulate transcription of genes containing activator protein-1 regulatory elements [12].
  • Withdrawal, induced by the cannabinoid antagonist SR 141716A, was accompanied by a marked elevation in extracellular CRF concentration and a distinct pattern of Fos activation in the central nucleus of the amygdala [13].
  • Regional brain activation was assessed by mapping of Fos-related protein expression in rats trained to self-administration of intravenous nicotine and cocaine [14].
  • Light pulses also increased messenger RNA for the Fos protein and for the immediate-early protein NGFI-A in the rat SCN [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Fos


Biological context of Fos

  • AP-1 is an ubiquitous transcription factor which is composed of the Jun and Fos proto-oncogene proteins and is thought to play a role in both cell proliferation and differentiation [21].
  • The vitamin E deficiency-mediated loss of AP-1 activity was not due to an alteration in the dimeric composition of constituent proteins, but rather to a general down-regulation of steady-state levels of members of the Fos and Jun families of proteins [22].
  • Thus, potentially, these different states of Fos and Jun can be recognized and regulated independently by phosphorylation [23].
  • PP2B independent dephosphorylation contributes to degradation of c-Fos protein during oxidative stress response of cardiomyocytes [24].
  • With high percentage gel electrophoresis, multiple c-Fos bands were resolved by Western blot analyses, indicating post-translational modification of newly synthesized c-Fos protein after H2O2 exposure [24].

Anatomical context of Fos


Associations of Fos with chemical compounds

  • Coexpression of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein-binding protein and steroid receptor coactivator-1a further enhanced the Fos/Jun-mediated transcription [2].
  • On the other hand, in EB rats there were significant peaks of LH levels and Fos levels in GnRH neurons and the AVPV between ZT11-12 and ZT13-14 [26].
  • DNA binding of the Fos-Jun heterodimer was modulated by reduction-oxidation (redox) of a single conserved cysteine residue in the DNA-binding domains of the two proteins [29].
  • These patterns of NGFI-A activation are remarkably similar to those found for Fos-like immunoreactivity following acute amphetamine and cocaine treatments, suggesting that coordinate activation of members of at least two immediate-early gene families occurs in the striatum following catecholaminergic stimulation [30].
  • Oxidants cause activation of the AP-1 transcription factor in cardiomyocytes. c-Fos, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor, is transiently induced by H2O2 and the induction is sensitive to the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide [24].

Physical interactions of Fos

  • We have also found that heterodimer formation of Maf-2 with c-Fos dramatically changes the specificity of DNA binding and trans-activation activity from that of the Maf-2 homodimer [31].
  • DNase I footprinting experiments demonstrated that Jun homodimeric complexes and Fos-Jun heterodimeric complexes interacted with the same site on the human metallothionein IIA gene [1].

Co-localisations of Fos

  • Another subpopulation comprised larger neurons that exhibited intense neurotensin immunoreactivity in perikarya and proximal processes that was rarely co-localized with Fos immunoreactivity [32].

Regulatory relationships of Fos


Other interactions of Fos

  • In vasopressinergic neurons, the expression of the Fos/Jun family proteins is known to be rapidly induced after these stimuli as well [2].
  • Here, rat brains were investigated immunohistochemically for the expression of c-Fos, c-Myc, and beta-APP during the first 3 weeks postexposure to impulse noise of 198 or 202 dB [25].
  • Maf-2 heterodimerizes with c-Fos [31].
  • These data indicate that the transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun are important in the regulation of Cx43 expression [38].
  • Here we used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to determine whether estradiol increases CCK-induced neuronal activation in several brain regions implicated in the control of feeding [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fos

  • The mini-Fos (wbFos) and the mini-Jun (wbJun) proteins were purified to apparent homogeneity by using a nickel affinity chromatography procedure [1].
  • Using site-directed mutagenesis and EMSA techniques, we identified an activation protein 1 (AP1)-like element (-134/-128; TGAATCA) in the AVP gene 5'-promoter region, which is the sole responsible site for the Fos/Jun-mediated transcription [2].
  • Immunohistochemical analyses for Fos and GnRH and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for LH were then performed [26].
  • Treatment of immunoprecipitated c-Fos protein with the type 2 serine/threonine phosphatase A (PP2A) and immunoblotting of c-Fos protein with antibodies against phosphorylated serine or threonine demonstrated that c-Fos was phosphorylated at serine residues [24].
  • Combined retrograde Fluorogold (FG) labeling and c-Fos immunocytochemistry showed that throughout the CN about 60% (2270/3652) of the c-Fos-IR cells contained FG, confirming that they were cuneothalamic projection neurons (CTNs) [39].


  1. Expression and purification of the leucine zipper and DNA-binding domains of Fos and Jun: both Fos and Jun contact DNA directly. Abate, C., Luk, D., Gentz, R., Rauscher, F.J., Curran, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of a functional AP1 element in the rat vasopressin gene promoter. Yoshida, M., Iwasaki, Y., Asai, M., Takayasu, S., Taguchi, T., Itoi, K., Hashimoto, K., Oiso, Y. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. AP-1-mediated invasion requires increased expression of the hyaluronan receptor CD44. Lamb, R.F., Hennigan, R.F., Turnbull, K., Katsanakis, K.D., MacKenzie, E.D., Birnie, G.D., Ozanne, B.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Suppression of ischemia-induced fos expression and AP-1 activity by an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to c-fos mRNA. Liu, P.K., Salminen, A., He, Y.Y., Jiang, M.H., Xue, J.J., Liu, J.S., Hsu, C.Y. Ann. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Territorial and extra-territorial distribution of Fos protein in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn neurons in rats with chronic constriction nerve injuries. Ro, L.S., Li, H.Y., Huang, K.F., Chen, S.T. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Orexin and MCH neurons express c-Fos differently after sleep deprivation vs. recovery and bear different adrenergic receptors. Modirrousta, M., Mainville, L., Jones, B.E. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of water deprivation and rehydration on c-Fos and FosB staining in the rat supraoptic nucleus and lamina terminalis region. Ji, L.L., Fleming, T., Penny, M.L., Toney, G.M., Cunningham, J.T. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Regional brainstem expression of Fos associated with sexual behavior in male rats. Hamson, D.K., Watson, N.V. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. The vagus nerve mediates behavioural depression, but not fever, in response to peripheral immune signals; a functional anatomical analysis. Konsman, J.P., Luheshi, G.N., Bluthé, R.M., Dantzer, R. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of Fos, Jun, and Krox family proteins in Alzheimer's disease. MacGibbon, G.A., Lawlor, P.A., Walton, M., Sirimanne, E., Faull, R.L., Synek, B., Mee, E., Connor, B., Dragunow, M. Exp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. TGF-beta 1 inhibition of transin/stromelysin gene expression is mediated through a Fos binding sequence. Kerr, L.D., Miller, D.B., Matrisian, L.M. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of DNA 5-methylcytosine transferase in cell transformation by fos. Bakin, A.V., Curran, T. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Activation of corticotropin-releasing factor in the limbic system during cannabinoid withdrawal. Rodríguez de Fonseca, F., Carrera, M.R., Navarro, M., Koob, G.F., Weiss, F. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Common neural substrates for the addictive properties of nicotine and cocaine. Pich, E.M., Pagliusi, S.R., Tessari, M., Talabot-Ayer, D., Hooft van Huijsduijnen, R., Chiamulera, C. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Light pulses that shift rhythms induce gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Rusak, B., Robertson, H.A., Wisden, W., Hunt, S.P. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Tegaserod inhibits noxious rectal distention induced responses and limbic system c-Fos expression in rats with visceral hypersensitivity. Jiao, H.M., Xie, P.Y. World J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Neuronal expression of Fos and Jun protein in the rat medulla and spinal cord after anoxic and hypercapnic stimulations. Miura, M., Okada, J., Takayama, K., Suzuki, T. Neurosci. Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Suckling and sucrose ingestion suppress persistent hyperalgesia and spinal Fos expression after forepaw inflammation in infant rats. Ren, K., Blass, E.M., Zhou, Q., Dubner, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition prolongs survival and modifies the transition to heart failure in rats with pressure overload hypertrophy due to ascending aortic stenosis. Weinberg, E.O., Schoen, F.J., George, D., Kagaya, Y., Douglas, P.S., Litwin, S.E., Schunkert, H., Benedict, C.R., Lorell, B.H. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Neonatal capsaicin treatment attenuates spinal Fos activation and dynorphin gene expression following peripheral tissue inflammation and hyperalgesia. Hylden, J.L., Noguchi, K., Ruda, M.A. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Differential regulation of AP-1 and novel TRE-specific DNA-binding complexes during differentiation of oligodendrocyte-type-2-astrocyte (O-2A) progenitor cells. Barnett, S.C., Rosario, M., Doyle, A., Kilbey, A., Lovatt, A., Gillespie, D.A. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Suppression of steroidogenesis and activator protein-1 transcription factor activity in rat adrenals by vitamin E deficiency-induced chronic oxidative stress. Abidi, P., Leers-Sucheta, S., Azhar, S. J. Nutr. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Dimerization and DNA binding alter phosphorylation of Fos and Jun. Abate, C., Baker, S.J., Lees-Miller, S.P., Anderson, C.W., Marshak, D.R., Curran, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. c-Fos phosphorylation induced by H2O2 prevents proteasomal degradation of c-Fos in cardiomyocytes. Coronella-Wood, J., Terrand, J., Sun, H., Chen, Q.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression of c-Fos and c-Myc and deposition of beta-APP in neurons in the adult rat brain as a result of exposure to short-lasting impulse noise. Säljö, A., Bao, F., Shi, J., Hamberger, A., Hansson, H.A., Haglid, K.G. J. Neurotrauma (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Increased Fos Immunoreactivity in Suprachiasmatic Nucleus before Luteinizing Hormone Surge in Estrogen-Treated Ovariectomized Female Rats. Tsukahara, S. Neuroendocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. GFAP and Fos immunoreactivity in lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata after chronic colonic inflammation in rats. Sun, Y.N., Luo, J.Y., Rao, Z.R., Lan, L., Duan, L. World J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. c-Fos activated phospholipid synthesis is required for neurite elongation in differentiating PC12 cells. Gil, G.A., Bussolino, D.F., Portal, M.M., Pecchio, A.A., Renner, M.L., Borioli, G.A., Guido, M.E., Caputto, B.L. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Redox regulation of fos and jun DNA-binding activity in vitro. Abate, C., Patel, L., Rauscher, F.J., Curran, T. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Dynamic regulation of NGFI-A (zif268, egr1) gene expression in the striatum. Moratalla, R., Robertson, H.A., Graybiel, A.M. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Rat maf-related factors: the specificities of DNA binding and heterodimer formation. Matsushima-Hibiya, Y., Nishi, S., Sakai, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Morphology and Fos immunoreactivity reveal two subpopulations of striatal neurotensin neurons following acute 6-hydroxydopamine lesions and reserpine administration. Brog, J.S., Zahm, D.S. Neuroscience (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Estradiol treatment increases CCK-induced c-Fos expression in the brains of ovariectomized rats. Eckel, L.A., Houpt, T.A., Geary, N. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Specific roles of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced fever and Fos expression in rat brain. Zhang, Y.H., Lu, J., Elmquist, J.K., Saper, C.B. J. Comp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Kiss1 neurons in the forebrain as central processors for generating the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge. Smith, J.T., Popa, S.M., Clifton, D.K., Hoffman, G.E., Steiner, R.A. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  36. The gut-brain peptide neuromedin U is involved in the mammalian circadian oscillator system. Nakahara, K., Hanada, R., Murakami, N., Teranishi, H., Ohgusu, H., Fukushima, N., Moriyama, M., Ida, T., Kangawa, K., Kojima, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Intracisternal TRH analog induces Fos expression in gastric myenteric neurons and glia in conscious rats. Miampamba, M., Yang, H., Sharkey, K.A., Taché, Y. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Regulation of connexin43 expression by c-fos and c-jun in myometrial cells. Mitchell, J.A., Lye, S.J. Cell Commun. Adhes. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Changes in c-Fos protein expression in the rat cuneate nucleus after electric stimulation of the transected median nerve. Lue, J.H., Leong, S.M., Day, A.S., Tsai, Y.J., Shieh, J.Y., Wen, C.Y. J. Neurotrauma (2002) [Pubmed]
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