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Gene Review

PGM2  -  phosphoglucomutase 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FLJ10983, Glucose phosphomutase 2, MSTP006, PGM 2, Phosphodeoxyribomutase, ...
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Disease relevance of PGM2

  • Genetic investigations reveal that: (1) inbreeding does not increase risk of lymphoma; (2) there is a weak association between the PGM2 locus and lymphoma; (3) based upon path analysis, there is evidence of a significant transmissible component (genetic predisposition) passed from the parental to the next generation [1].

High impact information on PGM2

  • The genes for PGM2 and malic enzyme-1 map in region 6p2100 leads to 6qter [2].
  • PGM-2 is a variant of the transplantable PGM-1 leukemia of strain C3H/HeJ [3].
  • Lithium stress causes an increase of the phosphoglucomutase activity due to an induction of transcription of the PGM2 gene, and its overexpression confers lithium tolerance in galactose medium [4].
  • In humans, there are three well-described isozymes, PGMI, PGM2, and PGM3 [5].
  • Indeed, an amino acid sequence, derived from a partial human cDNA, that fell within the second cross-kingdom lineage bears several characteristics expected for PGM2 [5].

Biological context of PGM2

  • Previous studies have shown that two homologs of genes on HSA4, PGM2 and PEPS, are located in bovine syntenic group U15 (chromosome 6) [6].
  • In screening of the PGM system by isoelectric focusing a heterozygote with a rare allele of PGM2 was detected [7].
  • One rare phenotype was found at each of the PGM1 AND PGM2 loci [8].
  • Baseline data are presented on phenotype and gene frequency distributions of nine red-cell enzyme systems (ADA, AK, EsD, GLO I, PGM1, AP, GPI, PGM2, SOD) in the Sunni Muslims of Kashmir valley in the northernmost Indian border state of Jammu and Kashmir [9].
  • These forms have the same kinetic properties, but from the substrate specificity experiments we have found that PGM2 forms are more effective for catalyzing the phosphoribomutase and glucose 1,6-bisphosphate synthase reaction than PGM1 forms [10].

Anatomical context of PGM2


Associations of PGM2 with chemical compounds

  • Micromolar concentrations of fructose 1,6-P2 and glycerate 2,3-P2 inhibit both PGM1 and PGM2 isoenzymes to a similar extent [15].
  • Other salient findings were the variability observed in the PGM2 and C3 systems, and the low prevalence of Bfs [16].
  • This cannot be achieved on human hemolysates where glycerate 1,3-P2-dependent glucose 1,2-bisphosphate synthesis is displayed only by multifunctional PGM2 isoenzymes [17].

Other interactions of PGM2


  1. Genetics of primate lymphomas in a baboon (Papio hamadryas) colony of Sukhumi, USSR. Crawford, M.H., Devor, E.J., O'Rourke, D.H., Yakovleva, L.A., Voevodin, A.F., Lapin, B.A. Genetica (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Assignment of the major histocompatibility complex to a region of the short arm of human chromosome 6. Francke, U., Pellegrino, M.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells in a biopotential murine leukemia: an in vitro model for differentiation therapy. Dührsen, U., Knieling, G., Wu, H.X., Hossfeld, D.K. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Phosphoglucomutase is an in vivo lithium target in yeast. Masuda, C.A., Xavier, M.A., Mattos, K.A., Galina, A., Montero-Lomeli, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. A phylogenetic approach to the identification of phosphoglucomutase genes. Whitehouse, D.B., Tomkins, J., Lovegrove, J.U., Hopkinson, D.A., McMillan, W.O. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Synteny mapping in the bovine: genes from human chromosome 4. Zhang, N., Threadgill, D.W., Womack, J.E. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. A rare phenotype of phosphoglucomutase-2 first detected in Mongoloids. Nishigaki, I., Itoh, T., Hasegawa, I. Hum. Genet. (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Placental enzyme polymorphisms in Canadian populations. II. Phosphoglucomutase. Donald, L.J. Hum. Hered. (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. Biochemical variation in the Sunni Muslims of Pulwama district, Jammu and Kashmir. Chahal, S.M., Sidhu, B.K., Mahajan, A. Hum. Hered. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Purification and partial characterization of the phosphoglucomutase isozymes from human placenta. Fazi, A., Piacentini, M.P., Piatti, E., Accorsi, A. Prep. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Isoenzymes of hexokinase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase and lactate dehydrogenase in uterine cancer. Marshall, M.J., Neal, F.E., Goldberg, D.M. Br. J. Cancer (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Relationships between the age-dependent decay of glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthesis, phosphoribomutase and phosphoglucomutase in human red cells. Accorsi, A., Fazi, A., Piatti, E., Piacentini, M.P., Magnani, M., Fornaini, G. Mech. Ageing Dev. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Chinese hamster X mouse hybrid cells segregating mouse chromosomes and isozymes. Minna, J.D., Marshall, T.H., Shaffer-Berman, P.V. Somatic Cell Genet. (1975) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of mature leukemic cells in the amplification of leukemic stem cells in a murine model. Dührsen, U., Knieling, G., Hossfeld, D.K. Int. J. Cancer (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Human erythrocyte phosphoglucomutase: comparison of the kinetic properties of PGM1 and PGM2 isoenzymes. Ninfali, P., Accorsi, A., Palma, F., Fazi, A., Piatti, E., Chiarantini, L., Fornaini, G. Biochimie (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. HLA antigens and other genetic markers in the Mapuche Indians of Argentina. Haas, E.J., Salzano, F.M., Araujo, H.A., Grossman, F., Barbetti, A., Weimer, T.A., Franco, M.H., Verruno, L., Nasif, O., Morales, V.H. Hum. Hered. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Specificity of glucose 1,6-bisphosphate synthesis in rabbit skeletal muscle. Piatti, E., Accorsi, A., Piacentini, M.P., Fazi, A. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Gene mapping of Microcebus murinus (Lemuridae): a comparison with man and Cebus capucinus (Cebidae). Cochet, C., Créau-Goldberg, N., Turleau, C., De Grouchy, J. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Red cell enzyme polymorphisms in Papua New Guinea Eastern Highlands. Seger, J., Godelier, M., Halle, L., Lemonnier, P., Lory, J.L., Rouger, P., Ruffie, J., Salmon, D. Gene geography : a computerized bulletin on human gene frequencies. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Linkage groups of protein-coding genes in western palearctic water frogs reveal extensive evolutionary conservation. Hotz, H., Uzzell, T., Berger, L. Genetics (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. A genetic study of two French Guiana Amerindian populations. II. Rare electrophoretic variants. Tchen, P., Séger, J., Bois, E., Grenand, F., Fribourg-Blanc, A., Feingold, N. Hum. Genet. (1978) [Pubmed]
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