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Gene Review

PGM3  -  phosphoglucomutase 3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AGM1, Acetylglucosamine phosphomutase, DKFZP434B187, IMD23, N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate mutase, ...
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Disease relevance of PGM3

  • The HL-A linkage group is composed of other systems: LD1, LD2, PGM3, ADA (?), P, ME1, IPO-B and possibly a "hay fever gene". No gametic or zygotic selection was found in spite of the presence of HL-A antigens on spermatozoa [1].
  • There is weak evidence for linkage of cystic fibrosis to PGM3, but none for linkage to HL-A [2].
  • Determination of IgG and IgM CSF and serum antibodies to gangliosides GM1, GM2, GM3, AGM1, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b showed a characteristic pattern which allowed the differentiation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls and from patients with other neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis [3].

High impact information on PGM3


Biological context of PGM3


Anatomical context of PGM3


Associations of PGM3 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of PGM3

  • In humans, there are three well-described isozymes, PGMI, PGM2, and PGM3 [23].
  • Segregation analysis of informative families for chromosome 6 markers confirmed the map order GLO--Bf--HLA-(B, C)--HLA-A, and, surprisingly, implies that PGM3 is more probably located on the HLA-A than on the HLA-B side of the linkage group [24].
  • A correlation between the expression or absence of human glyoxalase I and chromosome 6 (as well its markers ME1, IPO-B, and PGM3) was observed in man-mouse somatic cell hybrids [25].
  • This study confirms close linkage for the GLO--Bf--HLA-B,C,A complex, and proves linkage between the MHC loci and PGM3 [26].
  • M. destructor males displayed no heterozygosity at the Pgm3 locus, indicating that they were hemizygous as is the PGM locus in North America. In M. hordei, heterozygous males were observed at all loci, but strong heterozygote deficits were found at two loci (Mdh2 et Hk) [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PGM3


  1. Formal genetics of the HL-A region. Dausset, J., Degos, L., Fellous, M., Legrand, L. Genetics (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Data on the HL-A linkage group. Lamm, L.U., Thorsen, I.L., Petersen, G.B., Jorgensen, J., Henningsen, K., Bech, B., Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. A characteristic ganglioside antibody pattern in the CSF of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Stevens, A., Weller, M., Wiethölter, H. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Linkage between the gene (or genes) controlling synthesis of the fourth component of complement and the major histocompatibility complex. Ochs, H.D., Rosenfeld, S.I., Thomas, E.D., Giblett, E.R., Alper, C.A., Dupont, B., Schaller, J.G., Gilliland, B.C., Hansen, J.A., Wedgwood, R.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. Twenty-seven protein polymorphisms by two-dimensional electrophoresis of serum, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts in two pedigrees. Goldman, D., Goldin, L.R., Rathnagiri, P., O'Brien, S.J., Egeland, J.A., Merril, C.R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. A structural locus for coagulation factor XIIIA (F13A) is located distal to the HLA region on chromosome 6p in man. Olaisen, B., Gedde-Dahl, T., Teisberg, P., Thorsby, E., Siverts, A., Jonassen, R., Wilhelmy, M.C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Assignment of the major histocompatibility complex to a region of the short arm of human chromosome 6. Francke, U., Pellegrino, M.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. On regional mapping of human chromosome 6. Review and own findings. Bender, K., Bissbort, S., Hiller, C., Mayerova, A., Wienker, T.F. Acta anthropogenetica. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Sub-unit structure of soluble and mitochondrial malic enzyme: demonstration of human mitochondrial enzyme in human-mouse hybrids. Povey, S., Wilson, D.E., Harris, H., Gormley, I.P., Perry, P., Buckton, K.E. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. Phosphoglucomutase phenotypes and prenatal selection. Studies of spontaneous and induced abortions. Beckman, G., Beckman, L. Hum. Hered. (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. Placental enzyme polymorphisms in Canadian populations. II. Phosphoglucomutase. Donald, L.J. Hum. Hered. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Application of a computer program for the mapping of a gene locus to the disputed PGM3 localization on human chromosome 6. Baur, M.P., Rittner, C. Tissue Antigens (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Isoenzymes of hexokinase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase and lactate dehydrogenase in uterine cancer. Marshall, M.J., Neal, F.E., Goldberg, D.M. Br. J. Cancer (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Population genetics of human red cell phosphoclucomutase isozyme PGM3 (E.C.: Gene frequencies in Southwestern Germany. Bissbort, S., Kömpf, J., Bethge, R., Gussmann, S. Humangenetik. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Cloning and characterization of complementary DNA encoding human N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate mutase protein. Li, C., Rodriguez, M., Banerjee, D. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Ganglioside antibodies: a lack of diagnostic specificity and clinical utility? Weller, M., Stevens, A., Sommer, N., Dichgans, J., Kappler, B., Wiethölter, H. J. Neurol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Anomalous mixed lymphocyte culture reactivity between HLA--A, --B, --C, --DR identical siblings. Reinsmoen, N.L., Noreen, H.J., Friend, P.S., Giblett, E.R., Greenberg, L.J., Kersey, J.H. Tissue Antigens (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. The locus for glyoxalase i (GLO) is between HLA-A and PGM3 on chromosome 6 of man. Meera Khan, P., Volkers, W.S., Doppert, B.A., Bijnen, A.B., Schreuder, I., van Rood, J.J. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Nonlinkage between C6 and chromosome 6 markers. Olving, J.H., Olaisen, B., Teisberg, P., Gedde-Dahl, T., Thorsby, E. Hum. Genet. (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. Assignment of PGM3 to the long arm of human chromosome 6. Studies using Chinese hamster X human cell hybrids containing a human 6/15 translocation. Mohandas, T., Sparkes, R.S., Shulkin, J.D., Sparkes, M.C., Moedjono, S. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. Linkage studies between HL-A and GPT polymorphisms and other genetic markers. Goedde, H.W., Stender, D., Saternus, K.S., Benkmann, H.G., Hiller, C., Stenger, O., Hoppe, H.H., Bleschke, H. Vox Sang. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Evolutionary trace analysis of the alpha-D-phosphohexomutase superfamily. Shackelford, G.S., Regni, C.A., Beamer, L.J. Protein Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. A phylogenetic approach to the identification of phosphoglucomutase genes. Whitehouse, D.B., Tomkins, J., Lovegrove, J.U., Hopkinson, D.A., McMillan, W.O. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Mapping of the linkage group GLO--Bf--HLA-B,C,A--PGM3. 2. Segregation analysis. Schunter, F., Wernet, P., Kömpf, J., Bissbort, S., Göhler, F. Hum. Genet. (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Possible assignment of the glyoxalase I (GLO) gene to chromosome 6 using man-mouse somatic cell hybrids. Bender, K., Grzeschik, K.H. Hum. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Mapping of the linkage group GLO--Bf--HLA-B,C,A--PGM3. 1. Recombination frequencies. Kömpf, J., Bissbort, S., Göhler, F., Schunter, F., Wernet, P. Hum. Genet. (1978) [Pubmed]
  27. Structure génétique des cécidomyies des céréales en Tunisie. Makni, H., Sellami, M., Marrakchi, M., Pasteur, N. Genet. Sel. Evol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. An improved method of typing hair sheath cells using the PGM3 locus following starch gel electrophoresis. Burgess, R.M., Sutton, J.G. Hum. Genet. (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Human cytosolic carnosinase: evidence of identity with prolinase, a non-specific dipeptidase. Lenney, J.F. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler (1990) [Pubmed]
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