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Gene Review

TRP-AGG2-3  -  transfer RNA-Pro (AGG) 2-3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: TRNAP1, TRNP1, TRP1
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Disease relevance of TRNAP1

  • Further, exposure of amelanotic melanoma cells with proteasome-specific inhibitor MG132 resulted in an increased Tyr activity, increased levels of Tyr and Trp1, leading to increased melanin synthesis [1].

High impact information on TRNAP1

  • As a consequence, B cell antigen receptor-mediated Ca(2+) oscillations and NF-AT activation are reduced in TRP1-deficient cells [2].
  • Tetrad analysis of heterozygotes harboring a TRP1 replacement of the ACT3-coding region indicates ACT3 is nonessential for growth under normal conditions and at extremes of temperature and osmolarity [3].
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for TRP-1 could not be detected in depigmented mice, but high titers of IgG anti-TRP-1 antibodies were present [4].
  • We also showed that the UASPGK functions as efficiently when in the inverted orientation and that it can enhance transcription when placed upstream of a TRP1-IFN fusion gene comprising the promoter of TRP1 fused to the coding region of human interferon alpha-2 [5].
  • In the present study we have explored the role of calmodulin (CaM) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) in the communication process activated after the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the activation of calcium influx via endogenous TRP1 channels from Chinese hamster ovary cells [6].

Biological context of TRNAP1

  • A set of lacZ translational fusion vectors was constructed to compare the gene expression signals of GPD1, TRP1 and PRO1 (a C. heterostrophus genomic fragment selected for promoter activity) in C. heterostrophus as single copies at the same site in the chromosome [7].
  • Structural organization of the TRP1 gene of Phycomyces blakesleeanus: implications for evolutionary gene fusion in fungi [8].
  • The full-length HPV16 genome, when linked in cis to a selectable yeast marker gene, either TRP1 or URA3, could replicate stably as an episome in yeast [9].

Anatomical context of TRNAP1

  • TRP1 interacting PDZ-domain protein GIPC forms oligomers and is localized to intracellular vesicles in human melanocytes [10].
  • We studied extracellular, intracellular and tRNA-proline pools in cultured human lung IMR-90 fibroblasts to determine the relationship between them as candidate proline precursor pools for total protein and collagen synthesis [11].
  • A 400-bp product, with >95% homology to mouse Trp1, was amplified from rat submandibular gland RNA [12].

Associations of TRNAP1 with chemical compounds

  • The steady state level of GPD1 mRNA is 14-fold greater than that of the constitutively-expressed TRP1 gene (encoding a tryptophan biosynthesis enzyme) indicating that GPD1 has a stronger promoter and/or a more stable mRNA [7].
  • In addition, mRNA of TRP-1 and TRP-2 were also increased after treatment with scoparone [13].
  • Levels of tyrosinase protein and to a lesser extent of tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) were subnormal but rose dramatically following stimulation by tyrosine [14].
  • However, tRNA-proline behaved isotopically as if it were the precursor and provided synthesis rates 2-3-fold higher than those calculated by using either free proline pool [11].
  • The specific radioactivity of cell-associated hydroxyproline reached a steady-state value 8-10h after radioisotope administration which matched the mean tRNA-proline specific radioactivity, suggesting that tRNA-proline is not isotopically compartmentalized [11].

Regulatory relationships of TRNAP1

  • Sequence differences in the tRNA-proline (tRNApro) end of the mitochondrial control-region of three species of Pacific butterflyfishes accumulated 33-43 times more rapidly than did changes within the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cytb) [15].

Other interactions of TRNAP1

  • The Kds of the interactions of Hsp40, TRP1, and HspBp1 with Hsp70 were 0.5, 0.6, and 0.04 mM, respectively [16].
  • We have investigated whether a Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH)-like disease can be induced in Akita dogs by immunizing them with tyrosinase related protein 1 (TRP1), and compared the alterations induced to those of Akita dogs with a spontaneously occurring disease that resembles human VKH disease [17].
  • Moab TA99, HMSA-5, and TMH-1 (all directed to the 75 kD tyrosinase-related protein [TRP1]) co-migrated with VIT 75 [18].


  1. Increased level of p27 subunit of proteasomes and its co-localization with tyrosinase in amelanotic melanoma cells indicate its direct role in the regulation of melanin biosynthesis. Godbole, D., Mojamdar, M., Pal, J.K. Cell Biol. Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Transient receptor potential 1 regulates capacitative Ca(2+) entry and Ca(2+) release from endoplasmic reticulum in B lymphocytes. Mori, Y., Wakamori, M., Miyakawa, T., Hermosura, M., Hara, Y., Nishida, M., Hirose, K., Mizushima, A., Kurosaki, M., Mori, E., Gotoh, K., Okada, T., Fleig, A., Penner, R., Iino, M., Kurosaki, T. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. ACT3: a putative centractin homologue in S. cerevisiae is required for proper orientation of the mitotic spindle. Clark, S.W., Meyer, D.I. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding a "self" antigen induces autoimmune vitiligo and tumor cell destruction in mice: requirement for CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Overwijk, W.W., Lee, D.S., Surman, D.R., Irvine, K.R., Touloukian, C.E., Chan, C.C., Carroll, M.W., Moss, B., Rosenberg, S.A., Restifo, N.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Efficient expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PGK gene depends on an upstream activation sequence but does not require TATA sequences. Ogden, J.E., Stanway, C., Kim, S., Mellor, J., Kingsman, A.J., Kingsman, S.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Calmodulin modulates the delay period between release of calcium from internal stores and activation of calcium influx via endogenous TRP1 channels. Vaca, L., Sampieri, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Relative strengths of promoters from Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Van Wert, S.L., Yoder, O.C. Curr. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Structural organization of the TRP1 gene of Phycomyces blakesleeanus: implications for evolutionary gene fusion in fungi. Choi, H.T., Revuelta, J.L., Sadhu, C., Jayaram, M. Gene (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Stable replication of papillomavirus genomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Angeletti, P.C., Kim, K., Fernandes, F.J., Lambert, P.F. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. TRP1 interacting PDZ-domain protein GIPC forms oligomers and is localized to intracellular vesicles in human melanocytes. Kedlaya, R.H., Bhat, K.M., Mitchell, J., Darnell, S.J., Setaluri, V. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Prolyl-tRNA-based rates of protein and collagen synthesis in human lung fibroblasts. Hildebran, J.N., Airhart, J., Stirewalt, W.S., Low, R.B. Biochem. J. (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Cloning of Trp1beta isoform from rat brain: immunodetection and localization of the endogenous Trp1 protein. Wang, W., O'Connell, B., Dykeman, R., Sakai, T., Delporte, C., Swaim, W., Zhu, X., Birnbaumer, L., Ambudkar, I.S. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Stimulation of melanogenesis by scoparone in B16 melanoma cells. Yang, J.Y., Koo, J.H., Song, Y.G., Kwon, K.B., Lee, J.H., Sohn, H.S., Park, B.H., Jhee, E.C., Park, J.W. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Melanosomal defects in melanocytes from mice lacking expression of the pink-eyed dilution gene: correction by culture in the presence of excess tyrosine. Rosemblat, S., Sviderskaya, E.V., Easty, D.J., Wilson, A., Kwon, B.S., Bennett, D.C., Orlow, S.J. Exp. Cell Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Rapid rate of control-region evolution in Pacific butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae). McMillan, W.O., Palumbi, S.R. J. Mol. Evol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Cooperative interaction of Hsp40 and TPR1 with Hsp70 reverses Hsp70-HspBp1 complex formation. Oh, W.K., Song, J. Mol. Cells (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Experimentally induced Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease in two Akita dogs. Yamaki, K., Takiyama, N., Itho, N., Mizuki, N., Seiya, M., Sinsuke, W., Hayakawa, K., Kotani, T. Exp. Eye Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of vitiligo antigens. Cui, J., Arita, Y., Bystryn, J.C. Pigment Cell Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
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