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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Phycomyces

  • The lycopene cyclase domain of carRA derived from a duplication of a gene from a common ancestor of fungi and Brevibacterium linens; the phytoene synthase domain is similar to the phytoene and squalene synthases of many organisms; but the regulatory functions appear to be specific to Phycomyces [1].

High impact information on Phycomyces

  • Here, we identify two (duplicated) homologs in the White Collar 1 family of blue-light photoreceptors in Phycomyces [2].
  • A single gene for lycopene cyclase, phytoene synthase, and regulation of carotene biosynthesis in Phycomyces [1].
  • The existence and the mode of operation of certain enzyme aggregates may be established from the concentrations of intermediates measured in the presence of specific inhibitors. beta-Carotene, the most abundant carotenoid pigment in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus, arises from ring formation at both ends of lycopene [3].
  • As a first step toward the molecular analysis of these genes and their products, we have developed a transformation protocol for Phycomyces by using a plasmid containing the kanamycin-resistance gene from Tn903 and a Phycomyces DNA fragment capable of supporting autonomous replication in yeast (ARS) [4].
  • The biosynthesis of gallic acid was studied in cultures of the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus and in leaves of the tree Rhus typhina [5].

Biological context of Phycomyces


Associations of Phycomyces with chemical compounds


Gene context of Phycomyces

  • Isolation and molecular analysis of the orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase gene (pyrG) of Phycomyces blakesleeanus [15].
  • Two forms of acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS1 and ACS2) have been detected in Phycomyces blakesleeanus [16].
  • The complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of the cloned TRP1 gene from Phycomyces blakesleeanus is reported [17].
  • The carB gene, encoding the phytoene dehydrogenase of Mucor circinelloides, was isolated by heterologous hybridisation with a probe derived from the corresponding gene of Phycomyces blakesleeanus [18].
  • The optimum pH for the carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity of BCE1 was 4.5, and the optimum temperature was 55 degrees C. Among family 45 endoglucanases, RCE1 and RCE2 from Rhizopus oryzae, PCE1 from Phycomyces nitens, and EGL3 and EGL4 from Humicola grisea, BCE1 was most resistant to anionic surfactant and oxidizing agent [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Phycomyces


  1. A single gene for lycopene cyclase, phytoene synthase, and regulation of carotene biosynthesis in Phycomyces. Arrach, N., Fernández-Martín, R., Cerdá-Olmedo, E., Avalos, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. The Phycomyces madA gene encodes a blue-light photoreceptor for phototropism and other light responses. Idnurm, A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Corrochano, L.M., Sanz, C., Iturriaga, E.A., Eslava, A.P., Heitman, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. In vivo channeling of substrates in an enzyme aggregate for beta-carotene biosynthesis. Candau, R., Bejarano, E.R., Cerdá-Olmedo, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Transformation of Phycomyces blakesleeanus to G-418 resistance by an autonomously replicating plasmid. Revuelta, J.L., Jayaram, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Retrobiosynthetic NMR studies with 13C-labeled glucose. Formation of gallic acid in plants and fungi. Werner, I., Bacher, A., Eisenreich, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Genomic organization of the fungus Phycomyces. Avalos, J., Corrochano, L.M., Brenner, S. Gene (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Mutagenesis in multinucleate cells: the effects of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine on Phycomyces spores. Roncero, M.I., Zabala, C., Cerdá-Olmedo, E. Mutat. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Substrate transfer in carotene biosynthesis in Phycomyces. Murillo, F.J., Torres-Martinez, S., Aragon, C.M., Cerda-Olmedo, E. Eur. J. Biochem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of pH on the role of Mg2+ and Mn2+ on Phycomyces isocitrate lyase kinetics. Rúa, J., Soler, J., Busto, F., de Arriaga, D. Biochimie (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Genetic damage following introduction of DNA in Phycomyces. Obraztsova, I.N., Prados, N., Holzmann, K., Avalos, J., Cerdá-Olmedo, E. Fungal Genet. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Serine proteinases and their inhibitors in Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Fischer, E.P., Thomson, K.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Methyl trisporate E. A sex pheromone in Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Miller, M.L., Sutter, R.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Isocitrate lyase from Phycomyces blakesleeanus. The role of Mg2+ ions, kinetics and evidence for two classes of modifiable thiol groups. Rúa, J., de Arriaga, D., Busto, F., Soler, J. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Lactate dehydrogenase in Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Soler, J., De Arriaga, D., Busto, F., Cadenas, E. Biochem. J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Isolation and molecular analysis of the orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase gene (pyrG) of Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Díaz-Mínguez, J.M., Iturriaga, E.A., Benito, E.P., Corrochano, L.M., Eslava, A.P. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. An acetyl-CoA synthetase not encoded by the facA gene is expressed under carbon starvation in Phycomyces blakesleeanus. De Cima, S., Rúa, J., Perdiguero, E., del Valle, P., Busto, F., Baroja-Mazo, A., de Arriaga, D. Res. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Structural organization of the TRP1 gene of Phycomyces blakesleeanus: implications for evolutionary gene fusion in fungi. Choi, H.T., Revuelta, J.L., Sadhu, C., Jayaram, M. Gene (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Blue-light regulation of phytoene dehydrogenase (carB) gene expression in Mucor circinelloides. Velayos, A., Blasco, J.L., Alvarez, M.I., Iturriaga, E.A., Eslava, A.P. Planta (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Purification and characterization of a new endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanase from Beltraniella portoricensis. Baba, Y., Shimonaka, A., Koga, J., Murashima, K., Kubota, H., Kono, T. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. A genetic map of Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Orejas, M., Peláez, M.I., Alvarez, M.I., Eslava, A.P. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. The phytoene dehydrogenase gene of Phycomyces: regulation of its expression by blue light and vitamin A. Ruiz-Hidalgo, M.J., Benito, E.P., Sandmann, G., Eslava, A.P. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
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