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Gene Review


Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: COLD REGULATED 78, COR78, K24M7.4, K24M7_4, LOW-TEMPERATURE-INDUCED 78, ...
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Disease relevance of COR78

  • The lti140 mRNA accumulates rapidly in both leaves and roots when plants are subject to low temperature or water stress or are treated with the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), but not by heat-shock treatment [1].
  • Fusion of the entire transcribed region of cor78 to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter resulted in a chimeric gene that was constitutively expressed and displayed little if any posttranscriptional regulation in response to low temperature [2].

High impact information on COR78

  • In ago6-1ros1-1 plants, RD29A promoter short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are less abundant, and cytosine methylation at both transgenic and endogenous RD29A promoters is reduced, compared to that in ros1-1 [3].
  • DNA methylation in rDNA, centromeric DNA, and RD29A promoter regions is not affected by ror1 [4].
  • Analysis of transgenic plants showed that overexpression of AtSUMO1/2 does not have any obvious effect in general plant development, but increased sumoylation levels attenuate abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated growth inhibition and amplify the induction of ABA- and stress-responsive genes such as RD29A [5].
  • To study low-temperature signaling in plants, we previously screened for cold stress response mutants using bioluminescent Arabidopsis plants that express the firefly luciferase reporter gene driven by the stress-responsive RD29A promoter [6].
  • Expression of RD29A-LUC (the firefly luciferase reporter gene under the control of the stress-responsive RD29A promoter) in response to cold and salt/drought is reduced in the los5 mutants, but the response to abscisic acid (ABA) remains unaltered [7].

Biological context of COR78

  • However, a stronger expression of COR47 and COR78 in response to cold acclimation and to especially freezing was observed in PLDalpha1-deficient plants [8].
  • In contrast to the induction of lti78, which follows separate signal pathways during low-temperature, ABA and drought treatment, the drought induction of lti65 is ABA-dependent and the low-temperature induction appears to be coupled to the ABA biosynthetic pathway [9].
  • The nucleotide sequences of the two genes, lti78 and lti65, predict novel hydrophilic polypeptides with molecular weights of 77,856 and 64,510, respectively, lti78 corresponding to the cDNA probe [9].
  • A quantification of mRNA levels in leaves of parental and F(1) lines using quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed no clear indication for an involvement of the investigated genes (CBF (C-repeat binding factor)1, CBF2, (cold-regulated protein (COR) 6.6, COR15a, COR15b, COR47 and COR78) in the heterosis effect [10].
  • The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 10 MKKs, but few of these have been shown directly to activate any of the 20 Arabidopsis MAPKs (AtMPKs) and NaCl-, drought- or abscisic acid (ABA)-induced genes RD29A or RD29B [11].

Associations of COR78 with chemical compounds

  • Expression of lti78 was mainly responsive to low temperature, that of lti65 to drought and ABA [9].
  • Transcriptional regulation of ABI3- and ABA-responsive genes including RD29B and RD29A in seeds, germinating embryos, and seedlings of Arabidopsis [12].
  • The gene with the largest induction under all three stress treatments was At5g52310 (LTI/COR78), with induction levels in roots greater than 250-fold for cold, 40-fold for mannitol, and 57-fold for NaCl [13].
  • No transcription of the PR-1, PR-2, PR-5, thionin, and RD29A genes was observed in untreated leaf tissues of the transgenic plants [14].

Other interactions of COR78

  • Although non-acclimated PLDalpha1-deficient plants did not show the activation of cold-responsive C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factors (CBFs) and their target genes (COR47 and COR78), they did accumulate osmolytes to much higher levels than did the non-acclimated wild-type plants [8].
  • Of the 710 amino acids of LTI78 and 600 amino acids of LTI65, 346 amino acids were identical between the polypeptides, which suggests that the genes may have a common origin [9].
  • In addition, the ataig1 plants showed reduced expression of ABA-responsive genes, such as RD29A and RD22 [15].
  • Accumulation of the lti140 mRNA in plants exposed to water stress was somewhat reduced by treatment with fluridone and in the ABA-insensitive mutant abi-1 suggesting that the water stress induction of ltil40 could be partly mediated by ABA [1].
  • At5g06760, LTI30, RD29A, and RAB18 were stimulated by ABA and also specifically expressed in DGPP-treated cells [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of COR78

  • Northern blotting revealed that AtGSK1 over-expression induced expression of the NaCl stress-responsive genes AtCP1, RD29A and CHS1 in the absence of NaCl stress [17].


  1. Separate signal pathways regulate the expression of a low-temperature-induced gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Nordin, K., Heino, P., Palva, E.T. Plant Mol. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Heyn) cor78 in response to low temperature. Horvath, D.P., McLarney, B.K., Thomashow, M.F. Plant Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Role of Arabidopsis AGO6 in siRNA accumulation, DNA methylation and transcriptional gene silencing. Zheng, X., Zhu, J., Kapoor, A., Zhu, J.K. EMBO J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. ROR1/RPA2A, a putative replication protein A2, functions in epigenetic gene silencing and in regulation of meristem development in Arabidopsis. Xia, R., Wang, J., Liu, C., Wang, Y., Wang, Y., Zhai, J., Liu, J., Hong, X., Cao, X., Zhu, J.K., Gong, Z. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Small ubiquitin-like modifier modulates abscisic acid signaling in Arabidopsis. Lois, L.M., Lima, C.D., Chua, N.H. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. A mitochondrial complex I defect impairs cold-regulated nuclear gene expression. Lee, B.H., Lee, H., Xiong, L., Zhu, J.K. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The Arabidopsis LOS5/ABA3 locus encodes a molybdenum cofactor sulfurase and modulates cold stress- and osmotic stress-responsive gene expression. Xiong, L., Ishitani, M., Lee, H., Zhu, J.K. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Suppression of phospholipase Dalpha1 induces freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis: Response of cold-responsive genes and osmolyte accumulation. Rajashekar, C.B., Zhou, H.E., Zhang, Y., Li, W., Wang, X. J. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential expression of two related, low-temperature-induced genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Nordin, K., Vahala, T., Palva, E.T. Plant Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Heterosis in the freezing tolerance of crosses between two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions (Columbia-0 and C24) that show differences in non-acclimated and acclimated freezing tolerance. Rohde, P., Hincha, D.K., Heyer, A.G. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Activation of the NaCl- and drought-induced RD29A and RD29B promoters by constitutively active Arabidopsis MAPKK or MAPK proteins. Hua, Z.M., Yang, X., Fromm, M.E. Plant Cell Environ. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Transcriptional regulation of ABI3- and ABA-responsive genes including RD29B and RD29A in seeds, germinating embryos, and seedlings of Arabidopsis. Nakashima, K., Fujita, Y., Katsura, K., Maruyama, K., Narusaka, Y., Seki, M., Shinozaki, K., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K. Plant Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Transcriptome changes for Arabidopsis in response to salt, osmotic, and cold stress. Kreps, J.A., Wu, Y., Chang, H.S., Zhu, T., Wang, X., Harper, J.F. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of pathogen-responsive regions in the promoter of a pepper lipid transfer protein gene (CALTPI) and the enhanced resistance of the CALTPI transgenic Arabidopsis against pathogen and environmental stresses. Jung, H.W., Kim, K.D., Hwang, B.K. Planta (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular characterization of a bHLH transcription factor involved in Arabidopsis abscisic acid-mediated response. Kim, J., Kim, H.Y. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Induction of abscisic acid-regulated gene expression by diacylglycerol pyrophosphate involves Ca2+ and anion currents in Arabidopsis suspension cells. Zalejski, C., Paradis, S., Maldiney, R., Habricot, Y., Miginiac, E., Rona, J.P., Jeannette, E. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Constitutive over-expression of AtGSK1 induces NaCl stress responses in the absence of NaCl stress and results in enhanced NaCl tolerance in Arabidopsis. Piao, H.L., Lim, J.H., Kim, S.J., Cheong, G.W., Hwang, I. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
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