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Gene Review

ABI5  -  protein abscisic acid-insensitive 5

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: ABA INSENSITIVE 5, AtABI5, F2H17.12, F2H17_12, GIA1, ...
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Disease relevance of ABI5


High impact information on ABI5

  • When expressed together, AFP and ABI5 are colocalized in nuclear bodies, which also contain COP1, a RING motif protein [1].
  • Our results suggest that AFP attenuates ABA signals by targeting ABI5 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation in nuclear bodies [1].
  • AFP is a novel negative regulator of ABA signaling that promotes ABI5 protein degradation [1].
  • The growth arrest efficiency depends on ABI5 levels, and abi5 mutants are ABA-insensitive and unable to execute the ABA-mediated growth arrest [1].
  • Proteasome inhibitor studies show that ABI5 stability is regulated by ABA through ubiquitin-related events [1].

Biological context of ABI5

  • As expected for a key player in ABA-triggered processes, ABI5 protein accumulation, phosphorylation, stability, and activity are highly regulated by ABA during germination and early seedling growth [2].
  • Yeast one-hybrid assays with a lacZ reporter gene under control of the late embryogenesis-abundant AtEm6 promoter show that only ABI5 binds directly to this promoter fragment [3].
  • Characterization of three homologous basic leucine zipper transcription factors (bZIP) of the ABI5 family during Arabidopsis thaliana embryo maturation [4].
  • To determine whether ABI5 is necessary and/or sufficient for ABA or stress response, we assayed the effects of increased ABI5 expression on growth and gene expression [5].
  • AtOEP16-S, which contains multiple G-box ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in the promoter region, is regulated by ABI3 and ABI5 and is strongly expressed during the maturation phase in seeds and pollen grains, both desiccation-tolerant tissues [6].

Anatomical context of ABI5


Associations of ABI5 with chemical compounds

  • Furthermore, ABI5 expression in the endosperm defines a second region of altered ABA signaling in the micropylar endosperm cap [8].
  • Here we report that the basic leucine zipper transcription factor ABI5 confers an enhanced response to exogenous ABA during germination, and seedling establishment, as well as subsequent vegetative growth [2].
  • Lanthanum, a trivalent ion that acts as an agonist of ABA signaling, potentiated ABI5 transactivation [7].

Regulatory relationships of ABI5

  • The transcription factor ABI5 was consistently upregulated by both treatments and PKL was downregulated [9].

Other interactions of ABI5

  • The ABI5 domains required for interaction with ABI3 include two conserved charged domains in the amino-terminal half of the protein [3].
  • Although ABI5, ABF3, and ABF1 have some overlapping effects, they appear to antagonistically regulate each other's expression at specific stages [10].
  • Abscisic Acid-Insensitive 5 (ABI5) is one of the 13 members of group A and is involved in ABA signalling during seed maturation, and germination [4].
  • Comparison of expression of eight ABI5-homologous genes shows overlapping regulation by ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5, suggestive of a combinatorial network involving positive and negative regulatory interactions [5].
  • ABI4 and ABI5 transcripts accumulate in response to sugars, whereas the CTR1 transcript is transiently reduced followed by a rapid recovery [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ABI5


  1. AFP is a novel negative regulator of ABA signaling that promotes ABI5 protein degradation. Lopez-Molina, L., Mongrand, S., Kinoshita, N., Chua, N.H. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. A postgermination developmental arrest checkpoint is mediated by abscisic acid and requires the ABI5 transcription factor in Arabidopsis. Lopez-Molina, L., Mongrand, S., Chua, N.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Physical interactions between ABA response loci of Arabidopsis. Nakamura, S., Lynch, T.J., Finkelstein, R.R. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of three homologous basic leucine zipper transcription factors (bZIP) of the ABI5 family during Arabidopsis thaliana embryo maturation. Bensmihen, S., Giraudat, J., Parcy, F. J. Exp. Bot. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation and role of the Arabidopsis abscisic acid-insensitive 5 gene in abscisic acid, sugar, and stress response. Brocard, I.M., Lynch, T.J., Finkelstein, R.R. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Gene duplication, exon gain and neofunctionalization of OEP16-related genes in land plants. Drea, S.C., Lao, N.T., Wolfe, K.H., Kavanagh, T.A. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. ABI5 interacts with abscisic acid signaling effectors in rice protoplasts. Gampala, S.S., Finkelstein, R.R., Sun, S.S., Rock, C.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Arabidopsis ABA INSENSITIVE4 regulates lipid mobilization in the embryo and reveals repression of seed germination by the endosperm. Penfield, S., Li, Y., Gilday, A.D., Graham, S., Graham, I.A. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Transcriptional profiling of imbibed Brassica napus seed. Li, F., Wu, X., Tsang, E., Cutler, A.J. Genomics (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Redundant and distinct functions of the ABA response loci ABA-INSENSITIVE(ABI)5 and ABRE-BINDING FACTOR (ABF)3. Finkelstein, R., Gampala, S.S., Lynch, T.J., Thomas, T.L., Rock, C.D. Plant Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Three genes that affect sugar sensing (abscisic acid insensitive 4, abscisic acid insensitive 5, and constitutive triple response 1) are differentially regulated by glucose in Arabidopsis. Arroyo, A., Bossi, F., Finkelstein, R.R., León, P. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. ABI5 acts downstream of ABI3 to execute an ABA-dependent growth arrest during germination. Lopez-Molina, L., Mongrand, S., McLachlin, D.T., Chait, B.T., Chua, N.H. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. The homologous ABI5 and EEL transcription factors function antagonistically to fine-tune gene expression during late embryogenesis. Bensmihen, S., Rippa, S., Lambert, G., Jublot, D., Pautot, V., Granier, F., Giraudat, J., Parcy, F. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana Em genes: role of ABI5. Carles, C., Bies-Etheve, N., Aspart, L., Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M., Koornneef, M., Echeverria, M., Delseny, M. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
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