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Gene Review

HTZ1  -  histone H2AZ

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: H2AZ, HTA3, Histone H2A.Z, O2345, YOL012C
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Disease relevance of HTZ1

  • Nonperoxisomal processes, among them chromatin modification by H2AZ, Pol II mediator function, and cell-wall-associated activities, also prevent oleate toxicity [1].

High impact information on HTZ1


Biological context of HTZ1

  • Importantly, fusion of the H2A.Z C-terminal region to S phase H2A without its corresponding C-terminal region can mediate the variant histone's specialized function in GAL1-10 gene induction, and it restores the slow-growth phenotype of cells with a deletion of HTZ1 [4].
  • Using plasmid shuffle experiments, we show that the major H2A genes cannot provide the function of HTZ1 and the HTZ1 gene cannot provide the essential function of the genes encoding the major H2As [5].
  • Acetylation of H2AZ Lys 14 is associated with genome-wide gene activity in yeast [6].
  • Moreover, like Htz1 and Bdf1, the SWR-C promotes gene expression near silent heterochromatin [7].
  • The histone H2A variant H2A.Z (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Htz1) plays roles in transcription, DNA repair, chromosome stability, and limiting telomeric silencing [8].

Associations of HTZ1 with chemical compounds

  • We show here that, while the HTZ1 gene encoding H2A.Z is not essential in budding yeast, its disruption results in slow growth and formamide sensitivity [5].

Physical interactions of HTZ1

  • We discovered that Swc2 binds directly to and is essential for transfer of H2AZ [9].

Enzymatic interactions of HTZ1


Other interactions of HTZ1

  • In support of our genome-wide analysis, we found that the acetylatable lysines of Htz1 are required for its full deposition during nucleosome reassembly upon repression of PHO5 [6].
  • The data presented here demonstrate that while Htz1 is associated preferentially with the promoters of repressed genes, K14 acetylation is enriched at the promoters of active genes, and requires two known histone acetyltransferases, Gcn5 and Esa1 [6].
  • A Snf2 family ATPase complex required for recruitment of the histone H2A variant Htz1 [7].
  • A histone variant, Htz1p, and a Sir1p-like protein, Esc2p, mediate silencing at HMR [11].
  • Additionally, the spectra of phenotypes, genes, and telomeres affected in yaf9Delta and htz1Delta strains are significantly similar, further supporting a role for Yaf9 in Htz1 deposition [12].


  1. The sensitivity of yeast mutants to oleic Acid implicates the peroxisome and other processes in membrane function. Lockshon, D., Surface, L.E., Kerr, E.O., Kaeberlein, M., Kennedy, B.K. Genetics (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Genome-wide dynamics of Htz1, a histone H2A variant that poises repressed/basal promoters for activation through histone loss. Zhang, H., Roberts, D.N., Cairns, B.R. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Conserved histone variant H2A.Z protects euchromatin from the ectopic spread of silent heterochromatin. Meneghini, M.D., Wu, M., Madhani, H.D. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. H2A.Z is required for global chromatin integrity and for recruitment of RNA polymerase II under specific conditions. Adam, M., Robert, F., Larochelle, M., Gaudreau, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Histone H2A.Z has a conserved function that is distinct from that of the major H2A sequence variants. Jackson, J.D., Gorovsky, M.A. Nucleic Acids Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Acetylation of H2AZ Lys 14 is associated with genome-wide gene activity in yeast. Millar, C.B., Xu, F., Zhang, K., Grunstein, M. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. A Snf2 family ATPase complex required for recruitment of the histone H2A variant Htz1. Krogan, N.J., Keogh, M.C., Datta, N., Sawa, C., Ryan, O.W., Ding, H., Haw, R.A., Pootoolal, J., Tong, A., Canadien, V., Richards, D.P., Wu, X., Emili, A., Hughes, T.R., Buratowski, S., Greenblatt, J.F. Mol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae histone H2A variant Htz1 is acetylated by NuA4. Keogh, M.C., Mennella, T.A., Sawa, C., Berthelet, S., Krogan, N.J., Wolek, A., Podolny, V., Carpenter, L.R., Greenblatt, J.F., Baetz, K., Buratowski, S. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Swc2 is a widely conserved H2AZ-binding module essential for ATP-dependent histone exchange. Wu, W.H., Alami, S., Luk, E., Wu, C.H., Sen, S., Mizuguchi, G., Wei, D., Wu, C. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. ATP-driven exchange of histone H2AZ variant catalyzed by SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex. Mizuguchi, G., Shen, X., Landry, J., Wu, W.H., Sen, S., Wu, C. Science (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. A histone variant, Htz1p, and a Sir1p-like protein, Esc2p, mediate silencing at HMR. Dhillon, N., Kamakaka, R.T. Mol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. The Yaf9 component of the SWR1 and NuA4 complexes is required for proper gene expression, histone H4 acetylation, and Htz1 replacement near telomeres. Zhang, H., Richardson, D.O., Roberts, D.N., Utley, R., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Côté, J., Cairns, B.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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