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Gene Review

NPR1  -  Npr1p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: N1631, Nitrogen permease reactivator protein, Serine/threonine-protein kinase NPR1, YNL183C
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High impact information on NPR1


Biological context of NPR1


Anatomical context of NPR1


Associations of NPR1 with chemical compounds

  • The amino-terminal domain of NPR1 (residues 1 to 440) contains 26% serine residues and several regions strongly enriched for PEST residues suggesting a short half-life for the NPR1 protein [7].
  • Consistent with the idea that Npr1p exerts its effect on the RAS/cAMP pathway by antagonizing a ubiquitin-mediated process, excess ubiquitin suppressed both the heat shock sensitivity and the sporulation defects caused by constitutive activation of the RAS/cAMP pathway [9].
  • The defect in spermidine transport was more pronounced in NH4(+)- than proline-grown npr1 cells, suggesting that NPR1 protects against nitrogen catabolite repression of polyamine uptake activity [6].
  • In proline-grown cells lacking Npr1, a protein kinase involved in the control of Gap1 trafficking, newly synthesized Gap1 is sorted from the Golgi to the vacuole without passing through the plasma membrane (accompanying article, De Craene, J.-O., Soetens, O., and André, B. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 43939-43948) [10].

Enzymatic interactions of NPR1

  • The N-terminal domain of yeast Bap2 permease is phosphorylated dependently on the Npr1 kinase in response to starvation [11].

Regulatory relationships of NPR1

  • The derepression of Gln3-activated genes in ammonium-grown npr1 cells results from the reduced uptake of the nitrogen-repressing compound because NCR could be restored in npr1 cells by repairing ammonium-uptake defects through different means [12].
  • The Npr1 kinase controls biosynthetic and endocytic sorting of the yeast Gap1 permease [5].

Other interactions of NPR1

  • Combining data from growth tests, Northern blot analysis and Gln3 immunolocalization, we show that the Npr1 kinase is not a direct negative regulator of Gln3-dependent transcription [12].
  • The results are interpreted as indicating that the NPR1 product is necessary for the reactivation of the general amino-acid permease which seems to be continuously inactivated by a regulatory process mediated by the MUT2 and the MUT4 gene products acting at the level of the PGR site of the general amino-acid permease molecule [13].
  • The NPR1 locus as well as the GAP1 locus code for proteins, as shown by the identification of nonsense mutations in both these genes [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NPR1


  1. The TOR nutrient signalling pathway phosphorylates NPR1 and inhibits turnover of the tryptophan permease. Schmidt, A., Beck, T., Koller, A., Kunz, J., Hall, M.N. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Pmr1, a Golgi Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase, is a regulator of the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway in yeast. Devasahayam, G., Ritz, D., Helliwell, S.B., Burke, D.J., Sturgill, T.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Quantitation of changes in protein phosphorylation: a simple method based on stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry. Bonenfant, D., Schmelzle, T., Jacinto, E., Crespo, J.L., Mini, T., Hall, M.N., Jenoe, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Interaction of NPR1 with basic leucine zipper protein transcription factors that bind sequences required for salicylic acid induction of the PR-1 gene. Zhang, Y., Fan, W., Kinkema, M., Li, X., Dong, X. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. The Npr1 kinase controls biosynthetic and endocytic sorting of the yeast Gap1 permease. De Craene, J.O., Soetens, O., Andre, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. The spermidine transport system is regulated by ligand inactivation, endocytosis, and by the Npr1p Ser/Thr protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kaouass, M., Gamache, I., Ramotar, D., Audette, M., Poulin, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae NPR1 gene required for the activity of ammonia-sensitive amino acid permeases encodes a protein kinase homologue. Vandenbol, M., Jauniaux, J.C., Grenson, M. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. LAS24/KOG1, a component of the TOR complex 1 (TORC1), is needed for resistance to local anesthetic tetracaine and normal distribution of actin cytoskeleton in yeast. Araki, T., Uesono, Y., Oguchi, T., Toh-E, A. Genes Genet. Syst. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. CAC3(MSI1) suppression of RAS2(G19V) is independent of chromatin assembly factor I and mediated by NPR1. Johnston, S.D., Enomoto, S., Schneper, L., McClellan, M.C., Twu, F., Montgomery, N.D., Haney, S.A., Broach, J.R., Berman, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Ubiquitin is required for sorting to the vacuole of the yeast general amino acid permease, Gap1. Soetens, O., De Craene, J.O., Andre, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. The N-terminal domain of yeast Bap2 permease is phosphorylated dependently on the Npr1 kinase in response to starvation. Omura, F., Kodama, Y. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Transduction of the Nitrogen Signal Activating Gln3-mediated Transcription Is Independent of Npr1 Kinase and Rsp5-Bul1/2 Ubiquitin Ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Feller, A., Boeckstaens, M., Marini, A.M., Dubois, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Study of the positive control of the general amino-acid permease and other ammonia-sensitive uptake systems by the product of the NPR1 gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Grenson, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Mutations affecting the activity and the regulation of the general amino-acid permease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Localisation of the cis-acting dominant pgr regulatory mutation in the structural gene of this permease. Grenson, M., Acheroy, B. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1982) [Pubmed]
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