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Gene Review

SWI4  -  Swi4p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: ART1, Cell-cycle box factor subunit SWI4, Protein ART1, Regulatory protein SWI4, YER111C
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Disease relevance of SWI4


High impact information on SWI4

  • SWI4 of budding yeast codes for a component of a transcription factor (cell cycle box factor, or CCBF) necessary for G1-specific expression of HO [2].
  • The requirement of SWI4 for transcription appears to be direct: each gene contains sites similar to the CCBF-binding site; CCBF binds to the upstream region of HCS26 [2].
  • We show that SWI4 is essential for haploid cell viability at high temperature and in a/alpha cells at all temperatures: SWI4-deficient cells arrest as large unbudded cells [2].
  • The role of SWI4 and SWI6 in the activity of G1 cyclins in yeast [3].
  • Eight high copy number plasmids were identified that allow swi4- strains to grow under nonpermissive conditions [2].

Biological context of SWI4


Anatomical context of SWI4

  • SBF contains the Swi4 and Swi6 proteins and activates the transcription of G(1) cyclin genes, cell wall biosynthesis genes, and the HO gene [9].

Associations of SWI4 with chemical compounds

  • We find that swi4, swi6, and hrr25 mutants, but not mbp1 mutants, are sensitive to hydroxyurea and the DNA-damaging agent methyl methane-sulfonate and are defective in the transcriptional induction of a subset of DNA damage-inducible genes [4].
  • Reciprocally, we found that clb5 mutant is hypersensitive to SDS, CFW, latrunculin B, or zymolyase, which suggests that, like the PKC pathway and Swi4, Clb5 is related to cell integrity [10].
  • The response to glucose is partially suppressed by inactivation of SWI4, but not MBP1, which is consistent with the dependence of MCB core elements upon the SCB-binding transcription factor (SBF) [11].
  • Alanine substitutions in both TPLH repeats of SWI6 reduce its activity but do not affect the stability of the protein or its association with SWI4 [12].

Physical interactions of SWI4

  • The Swi6 protein interacts with Swi4 to form the SBF complex and with Mbp1 to form the MBF complex [4].
  • Swi4 may bind to nonconsensus sequences in the CLN2 promoter (possibly in addition to consensus sites), or it may act indirectly to regulate CLN2 expression [13].
  • With the support of chromatin IP chip data, we also predict a possible variant of the Swi4 binding motif and recover a core motif for Arg80 [14].

Regulatory relationships of SWI4


Other interactions of SWI4

  • Periodic expression of SWI4 and CLN3 may be important for cell cycle progression, as we find that these genes are both haploinsufficient and rate limiting for G1 progression [20].
  • Inhibition of the Pkc1 pathway exacerbates the growth and bud emergence defects of swi4 mutants [15].
  • We find that another dose-dependent suppressor of swi4 mutants, the novel gene HCS77, encodes a putative integral membrane protein [15].
  • Role of Swi4 in cell cycle regulation of CLN2 expression [13].
  • We performed DNA microarray analysis and identified other genes whose expression was reduced in both SLT2 and SWI4 deletion strains [5].


  1. Regulation of cell cycle transcription factor Swi4 through auto-inhibition of DNA binding. Baetz, K., Andrews, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Transcriptional activation of CLN1, CLN2, and a putative new G1 cyclin (HCS26) by SWI4, a positive regulator of G1-specific transcription. Ogas, J., Andrews, B.J., Herskowitz, I. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. The role of SWI4 and SWI6 in the activity of G1 cyclins in yeast. Nasmyth, K., Dirick, L. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of the casein kinase I isoform, Hrr25, and the cell cycle-regulatory transcription factor, SBF, in the transcriptional response to DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ho, Y., Mason, S., Kobayashi, R., Hoekstra, M., Andrews, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Transcriptional coregulation by the cell integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase Slt2 and the cell cycle regulator Swi4. Baetz, K., Moffat, J., Haynes, J., Chang, M., Andrews, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. A role for the transcription factors Mbp1 and Swi4 in progression from G1 to S phase. Koch, C., Moll, T., Neuberg, M., Ahorn, H., Nasmyth, K. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of the yeast DNA replication genes through the Mlu I cell cycle box is dependent on SWI6. Verma, R., Smiley, J., Andrews, B., Campbell, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Phenotypic analysis of Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex mutations reveals connections to cell cycle regulation, protein synthesis, and lipid and nucleic acid metabolism. Betz, J.L., Chang, M., Washburn, T.M., Porter, S.E., Mueller, C.L., Jaehning, J.A. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of transcription at the Saccharomyces cerevisiae start transition by Stb1, a Swi6-binding protein. Ho, Y., Costanzo, M., Moore, L., Kobayashi, R., Andrews, B.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Functional connection between the Clb5 cyclin, the protein kinase C pathway and the Swi4 transcription factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Queralt, E., Igual, J.C. Genetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of cell size by glucose is exerted via repression of the CLN1 promoter. Flick, K., Chapman-Shimshoni, D., Stuart, D., Guaderrama, M., Wittenberg, C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Analysis of the SWI4/SWI6 protein complex, which directs G1/S-specific transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sidorova, J., Breeden, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Role of Swi4 in cell cycle regulation of CLN2 expression. Cross, F.R., Hoek, M., McKinney, J.D., Tinkelenberg, A.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Transcription factor binding element detection using functional clustering of mutant expression data. Chen, G., Hata, N., Zhang, M.Q. Nucleic Acids Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. A role for the Pkc1 MAP kinase pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in bud emergence and identification of a putative upstream regulator. Gray, J.V., Ogas, J.P., Kamada, Y., Stone, M., Levin, D.E., Herskowitz, I. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. A genetic screen reveals a role for the late G1-specific transcription factor Swi4p in diverse cellular functions including cytokinesis. Igual, J.C., Toone, W.M., Johnston, L.H. J. Cell. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Nuclear proteins Nut1p and Nut2p cooperate to negatively regulate a Swi4p-dependent lacZ reporter gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tabtiang, R.K., Herskowitz, I. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Genetic interactions between mediator and the late G1-specific transcription factor Swi6 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Li, L., Quinton, T., Miles, S., Breeden, L.L. Genetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Multiple SWI6-dependent cis-acting elements control SWI4 transcription through the cell cycle. Foster, R., Mikesell, G.E., Breeden, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. A novel Mcm1-dependent element in the SWI4, CLN3, CDC6, and CDC47 promoters activates M/G1-specific transcription. McInerny, C.J., Partridge, J.F., Mikesell, G.E., Creemer, D.P., Breeden, L.L. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
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