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Gene Review

gshB  -  glutathione synthetase

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK2942, JW2914, gsh-II
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Disease relevance of gshB

  • Escherichia coli B glutathione synthetase is composed of four identical subunits; each subunit contains 4 cysteine residues (Cys-122, -195, -222, and -289) [1].
  • Recently, bifunctional fusion protein, termed gamma-GCS-GS catalyzing both gamma-GCS and GS reactions from gram-positive firmicutes Streptococcus agalactiae, has been reported [2].
  • In Clostridium acetobutylicum, the genes encoding gamma-GCS and putative GS were found to be immediately adjacent by BLAST search, and had amino acid sequence homology with S. agalactiae gamma-GCS-GS, respectively [2].

High impact information on gshB


Chemical compound and disease context of gshB


Biological context of gshB

  • Downstream from the termination codon, the inverted repeat sequences were present, followed by 6 successive T's. These structural features found in the non-coding regions have suggested to be involved in regulatory functions for the gsh-II gene expression [4].
  • The catalytic mechanism of glutathione synthetase is proposed to proceed via phosphorylation of the dipeptide substrate to yield an acyl phosphate intermediate; this intermediate is subsequently attacked by glycine, followed by loss of inorganic phosphate, leading to glutathione formation [9].
  • Concerning the chemical similarity of sulfate and phosphate, this quaternary complex structure represents a pseudo enzyme-substrate complex in the reverse reaction and consequently allows us to understand the active site architecture of the E. coli glutathione synthetase [8].
  • C. acetobutylicum GS had broad substrate specificities and synthesized several kinds of gamma-glutamyltripeptide, gamma-Glu-Cys-X(aa) [2].
  • Downstream of gsh II is the 5' region of an open reading frame encoding a protein with significant similarity to bacterial D-alanine:D-alanine ligases (ADP forming) (EC [10].

Associations of gshB with chemical compounds


Other interactions of gshB

  • A higher GSH production, namely 34.8 mg g(-1) wet cell weight, was obtained by simultaneous expression of two copies of gshI gene and one copy of gshII gene [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of gshB


  1. Role of cysteine residues in glutathione synthetase from Escherichia coli B. Chemical modification and oligonucleotide site-directed mutagenesis. Kato, H., Tanaka, T., Nishioka, T., Kimura, A., Oda, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Novel substrate specificity of glutathione synthesis enzymes from Streptococcus agalactiae and Clostridium acetobutylicum. Kino, K., Kuratsu, S., Noguchi, A., Kokubo, M., Nakazawa, Y., Arai, T., Yagasaki, M., Kirimura, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. A common fold for peptide synthetases cleaving ATP to ADP: glutathione synthetase and D-alanine:d-alanine ligase of Escherichia coli. Fan, C., Moews, P.C., Shi, Y., Walsh, C.T., Knox, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Complete nucleotide sequence of the E. coli glutathione synthetase gsh-II. Gushima, H., Yasuda, S., Soeda, E., Yokota, M., Kondo, M., Kimura, A. Nucleic Acids Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of glutathione synthetase from Escherichia coli B. Kato, H., Yamaguchi, H., Hata, Y., Nishioka, T., Katsube, Y., Oda, J. J. Mol. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Mutational and proteolytic studies on a flexible loop in glutathione synthetase from Escherichia coli B: the loop and arginine 233 are critical for the catalytic reaction. Tanaka, T., Kato, H., Nishioka, T., Oda, J. Biochemistry (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Use of adenosine (5')polyphospho(5')pyridoxals to study the substrate-binding region of glutathione synthetase from Escherichia coli B. Hibi, T., Kato, H., Nishioka, T., Oda, J., Yamaguchi, H., Katsube, Y., Tanizawa, K., Fukui, T. Biochemistry (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. A pseudo-michaelis quaternary complex in the reverse reaction of a ligase: structure of Escherichia coli B glutathione synthetase complexed with ADP, glutathione, and sulfate at 2.0 A resolution. Hara, T., Kato, H., Katsube, Y., Oda, J. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Flexible loop that is novel catalytic machinery in a ligase. Atomic structure and function of the loopless glutathione synthetase. Kato, H., Tanaka, T., Yamaguchi, H., Hara, T., Nishioka, T., Katsube, Y., Oda, J. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Sequence of a putative glutathione synthetase II gene and flanking regions from Anaplasma centrale. Peters, J.M., Dalrymple, B.P., Jorgensen, W.K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Three-dimensional structure of the glutathione synthetase from Escherichia coli B at 2.0 A resolution. Yamaguchi, H., Kato, H., Hata, Y., Nishioka, T., Kimura, A., Oda, J., Katsube, Y. J. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. The oxygen effect: variation of the K-value and lifetimes of O2-dependent damage in some glutathione-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli. Harrop, H.A., Held, K.D., Michael, B.D. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Improved glutathione production by gene expression in Escherichia coli. Liao, X.Y., Shen, W., Chen, J., Li, Y., Du, G.C. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Site-directed mutagenesis of glutathione synthetase from Escherichia coli B: mapping of the gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine-binding site. Hara, T., Tanaka, T., Kato, H., Nishioka, T., Oda, J. Protein Eng. (1995) [Pubmed]
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