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Gene Review

PITPNM1  -  phosphatidylinositol transfer protein,...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: DRES9, Drosophila retinal degeneration B homolog, Membrane-associated phosphatidylinositol transfer protein 1, NIR-2, NIR2, ...
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Disease relevance of PITPNM1


High impact information on PITPNM1

  • Here we show that, at the onset of mitosis, Cdk1 phosphorylates the peripheral Golgi protein Nir2 at multiple sites; of these, S382 is the most prominent [2].
  • Phosphorylation of Nir2 by Cdk1 facilitates its dissociation from the Golgi apparatus, and phospho-Nir2(pS382) is localized in the cleavage furrow and midbody during cytokinesis [2].
  • These results indicate that Nir2 is involved in maintaining a critical DAG pool in the Golgi apparatus by regulating its consumption via the CDP-choline pathway, demonstrating the interface between secretion from the Golgi and lipid homeostasis [3].
  • Nir2 colocalizes with the small GTPase RhoA in the cleavage furrow and the midbody, and it associates with RhoA in mitotic cells [4].
  • In this study we provide evidence that the protein Nir2 is essential for cytokinesis [4].

Biological context of PITPNM1


Anatomical context of PITPNM1

  • In the adult rat retina, Nir2 was preferentially localized to the somata of all classes of retinal neurons, whereas Nir3 was highly expressed in the synaptic terminals [1].

Associations of PITPNM1 with chemical compounds

  • These results suggest that a specific threonine within the PI-transfer domain of Nir2 provides a regulatory site for targeting to lipid droplets [7].
  • However, oleic-acid treatment caused translocation of wild-type Nir2, but not translocation of the T59A mutant, to lipid droplets [7].
  • The decay of NIR1 leads to NIR2, which is attributed to the carotenoid radical cation [8].
  • We hypothesized that modification of folate would retain receptor affinity in vivo, despite the bulkier NIR fluorochrome, NIR2 (em = 682 nm) [9].

Other interactions of PITPNM1

  • We provide evidence that Nir (Nir1, Nir2, and Nir3)-VAP-B interactions are mediated through the conserved FFAT (two phenylalanines (FF) in acidic tract) motif present in Nir proteins [10].
  • We also show that the Nir2-VAP-B interaction attenuates protein export from the ER [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PITPNM1


  1. Cellular and developmental distribution of human homologues of the Drosophilia rdgB protein in the rat retina. Tian, D., Lev, S. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Mitotic phosphorylation of the peripheral Golgi protein Nir2 by Cdk1 provides a docking mechanism for Plk1 and affects cytokinesis completion. Litvak, V., Argov, R., Dahan, N., Ramachandran, S., Amarilio, R., Shainskaya, A., Lev, S. Mol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Maintenance of the diacylglycerol level in the Golgi apparatus by the Nir2 protein is critical for Golgi secretory function. Litvak, V., Dahan, N., Ramachandran, S., Sabanay, H., Lev, S. Nat. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Nir2, a human homolog of Drosophila melanogaster retinal degeneration B protein, is essential for cytokinesis. Litvak, V., Tian, D., Carmon, S., Lev, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Chromosomal localization, genomic organization and evolution of the genes encoding human phosphatidylinositol transfer protein membrane-associated (PITPNM) 1, 2 and 3. Ocaka, L., Spalluto, C., Wilson, D.I., Hunt, D.M., Halford, S. Cytogenet. Genome Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Nir2, a novel regulator of cell morphogenesis. Tian, D., Litvak, V., Toledo-Rodriguez, M., Carmon, S., Lev, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Targeting of Nir2 to lipid droplets is regulated by a specific threonine residue within its PI-transfer domain. Litvak, V., Shaul, Y.D., Shulewitz, M., Amarilio, R., Carmon, S., Lev, S. Curr. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Evidence for a lack of reactivity of carotenoid addition radicals towards oxygen: a laser flash photolysis study of the reactions of carotenoids with acylperoxyl radicals in polar and non-polar solvents. El-Agamey, A., McGarvey, D.J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Enhanced tumor detection using a folate receptor-targeted near-infrared fluorochrome conjugate. Moon, W.K., Lin, Y., O'Loughlin, T., Tang, Y., Kim, D.E., Weissleder, R., Tung, C.H. Bioconjug. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Differential regulation of endoplasmic reticulum structure through VAP-Nir protein interaction. Amarilio, R., Ramachandran, S., Sabanay, H., Lev, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
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