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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Semen Preservation

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High impact information on Semen Preservation

  • The results of this study can be used to make informed selections with regard to appropriate diluent composition and improved short-term sperm preservation protocols and represent the first such database for any species of marsupial [1].
  • Considering that a sperm protein similar to P25b exists in humans (P34H), these results may have significant clinical applications in which frozen semen is used [2].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malonaldehyde levels do not differ between fresh and frozen semen in normal men [3].
  • Effect of exogenous progesterone on superovulatory response in heifers inseminated with fresh or frozen semen [4].
  • This study with glycerol and increased number of motile sperm inseminated showed an increase in f to 10.4% for frozen semen and 27.4% for fresh semen [5].

Biological context of Semen Preservation


Anatomical context of Semen Preservation

  • All of the antibiotics which were non-toxic when added singly to frozen semen were also not harmful to frozen spermatozoa when as much as 2000 units or mug were added per ml of extender containing penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin [9].
  • Comparative SDS-PAGE analysis of the extracted fractions from fresh and frozen-thawed semen treated with Tween 20 showed that the higher amount of extracted proteins in the frozen semen samples corresponded to the egg yolk lipoproteins in the cryoprotectant medium [10].
  • Irrespective of fresh or frozen semen, no differences were observed in blastocyst yield when sperm was treated with heparin [11].

Associations of Semen Preservation with chemical compounds

  • Influence of estradiol-17 beta on fertility in confined sheep inseminated with frozen semen [12].
  • Frozen semen was thawed and treated with 200 microM platelet activating factor (PAF) for 15 min at 37 degrees C and 5% CO2 [13].
  • Twenty-six Hereford or Angus bulls of breeding age were used to determine whether the anthelmintic albendazole influenced weights of reproductive organs, spermatozoal production, spermatozoal output, quality of freshly ejaculated or frozen semen, serum testosterone values, or libido [14].
  • Viability of fresh and frozen semen was assessed in vitro using double stains, eosin and nigrosin [15].
  • Twenty batches of frozen semen from young AI bulls of the Swedish Red and White breed with known fertility (expressed as 56-day non-return rates; 56 d-NRR) were tested using a Chlortetracycline (CTC) assay to assess capacitation status in frozen-thawed spermatozoa [16].

Gene context of Semen Preservation

  • Frozen semen from the Genetic Resource Bank (GRB) of the Zoological Park of Buenos Aires (Argentina) was used [17].


  1. Optimal physicochemical conditions for the manipulation and short-term preservation of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) spermatozoa. Johnston, S.D., McGowan, M.R., Phillips, N.J., O'Callaghan, P. J. Reprod. Fertil. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Cryopreservation alters the levels of the bull sperm surface protein P25b. Lessard, C., Parent, S., Leclerc, P., Bailey, J.L., Sullivan, R. J. Androl. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of cryopreservation and sperm concentration on lipid peroxidation in human semen. Wang, Y., Sharma, R.K., Agarwal, A. Urology (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of exogenous progesterone on superovulatory response in heifers inseminated with fresh or frozen semen. Goulding, D., Williams, D.H., Roche, J.F., Boland, M.P. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Improved cryopreserved semen fecundability in an alternating fresh-frozen artificial insemination program. Brown, C.A., Boone, W.R., Shapiro, S.S. Fertil. Steril. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Insemination of beagle bitches with frozen semen. Ferguson, J.M., Renton, J.P., Farstad, W., Douglas, T.A. J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of cryoprotective media and dilution methods on the preservation of human spermatozoa. Mahadevan, M., Trounson, A.O. Andrologia (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Pregnancy outcome after artificial insemination or IVF with frozen semen donor: a collaborative study of the French CECOS Federation on 21,597 pregnancies. Lansac, J., Thepot, F., Mayaux, M.J., Czyglick, F., Wack, T., Selva, J., Jalbert, P. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Survival and fertility of antibiotic-treated bovine spermatozoa. Berndtson, W.E., Foote, R.H. J. Dairy Sci. (1976) [Pubmed]
  10. Loss of plasma membrane proteins of bull spermatozoa through the freezing-thawing process. Ollero, M., Bescós, O., Cebrián-Pérez, J.A., Muiño-Blanco, T. Theriogenology (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of donor stimulation, frozen semen and heparin treatment on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production in goats. Katska-Ksiazkiewicz, L., Ryńska, B., Gajda, B., Smorag, Z. Theriogenology (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Influence of estradiol-17 beta on fertility in confined sheep inseminated with frozen semen. Langford, G.A., Marcus, G.J., Hackett, A.J., Ainsworth, L., Wolynetz, M.S. J. Anim. Sci. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Platelet activating factor improves the in vitro penetration of zona free hamster eggs by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa. Kumar, S., Sharma, A. Theriogenology (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Influence of albendazole on reproductive function of bulls. Berndtson, W.E., Chenoweth, P.J., Olar, T.T., Pickett, B.W., Seidel, G.E. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Cryopreservation of semen from endangered pheasants: the first step towards a cryobank for endangered avian species. Saint Jalme, M., Lecoq, R., Seigneurin, F., Blesbois, E., Plouzeau, E. Theriogenology (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Relationship between the proportion of capacitated spermatozoa present in frozen-thawed bull semen and fertility with artificial insemination. Thundathil, J., Gil, J., Januskauskas, A., Larsson, B., Soderquist, L., Mapletoft, R., Rodriguez-Martinez, H. Int. J. Androl. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of thawing procedure on cryosurvival of deer spermatozoa: work in progress. Soler, A.J., Astore, V., Sestelo, A., Rivolta, M., Jácome, L.N., Garde, J.J. Theriogenology (2003) [Pubmed]
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