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MeSH Review

Reversal Learning

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Disease relevance of Reversal Learning


Psychiatry related information on Reversal Learning


High impact information on Reversal Learning

  • The pentylenetetrazole and peptide treatments also improved reversal learning [6].
  • After 2 weeks of APP 17-mer peptide infusion, the animals were tested for reversal learning and memory retention and were sacrificed for morphological examination of brains [7].
  • Furthermore, during long-term retention and reversal learning, eNOS-/- mice showed improved performance [8].
  • Temporal relationship between sniffing and the limbic theta rhythm during odor discrimination reversal learning [9].
  • High level production of the pathogenic Abeta42 form of Abeta peptide was associated with an early impairment in TgCRND8 mice in acquisition and learning reversal in the reference memory version of the Morris water maze, present by 3 months of age [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Reversal Learning

  • By contrast, the same medication impaired probabilistic reversal learning that implicates orbitofrontal cortex- ventral striatal circuitry, which is relatively spared of DA loss in PD [11].
  • Impairments of reversal learning and response perseveration after repeated, intermittent cocaine administrations to monkeys [12].
  • Effects of radiofrequency versus neurotoxic cingulate lesions on spatial reversal learning in mice [13].
  • This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effects of acute tryptophan (TRP) depletion (ATD), a well-recognized method for inducing transient cerebral serotonin depletion, on brain activity during probabilistic reversal learning [14].
  • Physostigmine and donepezil, but not galantamine, ameliorated MK-801-induced deficits in spatial reversal learning and in contextual and cued memory in a dose-dependent manner [15].
  • SB 242084 improved reversal learning by decreasing trials and incorrect responses to criterion in Reversal 1, with significantly fewer perseverative responses [16].

Anatomical context of Reversal Learning


Gene context of Reversal Learning

  • Short-term PS1 inactivation in young PS1 cKO;APP Tg mice rescued deficits in contextual fear conditioning and serial spatial reversal learning in a water maze, which were associated with APP Tg mice [19].
  • Rab3a(-/-) mice showed normal acquisition but moderately impaired platform reversal learning in the water maze including reference memory and episodic-like memory tasks [20].
  • Therefore, our primary goal was to determine whether FAAH (-/-) mice, which possess elevated levels of anandamide and other FAAs, would display altered performance in four Morris water maze tasks: acquisition of a hidden fixed platform, reversal learning, working memory, and probe trials [21].
  • In the Morris water maze the p25 mutants were normal in learning an initial platform location, but surprisingly reversal learning was improved when the platform position was changed [22].
  • Thus, these results directly suggest that activation of PKC pathways in a specific hippocampal area alters rat auditory discrimination reversal learning [23].


  1. Impairment of olfactory, auditory, and spatial serial reversal learning in rats recovered from pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency. Mair, R.G., Knoth, R.L., Rabchenuk, S.A., Langlais, P.J. Behav. Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of prenatal ethanol and long-chain n-3 fatty acid supplementation on development in mice. 1. Body and brain growth, sensorimotor development, and water T-maze reversal learning. Wainwright, P.E., Ward, G.R., Winfield, D., Huang, Y.S., Mills, D.E., Ward, R.P., McCutcheon, D. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. The effects of nucleus basalis magnocellularis lesions in Long-Evans hooded rats on two learning set formation tasks, delayed matching-to-sample learning, and open-field activity. Bailey, A.M., Thomas, R.K. Behav. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Behavioral effects of acute p-xylene inhalation in rats: autoshaping, motor activity, and reversal learning. Bushnell, P.J. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of diazepam or chronic alcohol treatment on spatial reversal learning in mice. Borde, N., Beracochea, D.J. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Brain aging correlates: retardation by hormonal-pharmacological treatments. Landfield, P.W., Baskin, R.K., Pitler, T.A. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Increase of synaptic density and memory retention by a peptide representing the trophic domain of the amyloid beta/A4 protein precursor. Roch, J.M., Masliah, E., Roch-Levecq, A.C., Sundsmo, M.P., Otero, D.A., Veinbergs, I., Saitoh, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Superior water maze performance and increase in fear-related behavior in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase-deficient mouse together with monoamine changes in cerebellum and ventral striatum. Frisch, C., Dere, E., Silva, M.A., Godecke, A., Schrader, J., Huston, J.P. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Temporal relationship between sniffing and the limbic theta rhythm during odor discrimination reversal learning. Macrides, F., Eichenbaum, H.B., Forbes, W.B. J. Neurosci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Early-onset amyloid deposition and cognitive deficits in transgenic mice expressing a double mutant form of amyloid precursor protein 695. Chishti, M.A., Yang, D.S., Janus, C., Phinney, A.L., Horne, P., Pearson, J., Strome, R., Zuker, N., Loukides, J., French, J., Turner, S., Lozza, G., Grilli, M., Kunicki, S., Morissette, C., Paquette, J., Gervais, F., Bergeron, C., Fraser, P.E., Carlson, G.A., George-Hyslop, P.S., Westaway, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Enhanced or impaired cognitive function in Parkinson's disease as a function of dopaminergic medication and task demands. Cools, R., Barker, R.A., Sahakian, B.J., Robbins, T.W. Cereb. Cortex (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Impairments of reversal learning and response perseveration after repeated, intermittent cocaine administrations to monkeys. Jentsch, J.D., Olausson, P., De La Garza, R., Taylor, J.R. Neuropsychopharmacology (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of radiofrequency versus neurotoxic cingulate lesions on spatial reversal learning in mice. Meunier, M., Destrade, C. Hippocampus. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Serotonergic modulation of prefrontal cortex during negative feedback in probabilistic reversal learning. Evers, E.A., Cools, R., Clark, L., van der Veen, F.M., Jolles, J., Sahakian, B.J., Robbins, T.W. Neuropsychopharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Cholinesterase inhibitors ameliorate behavioral deficits induced by MK-801 in mice. Csernansky, J.G., Martin, M., Shah, R., Bertchume, A., Colvin, J., Dong, H. Neuropsychopharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Dissociable effects of selective 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor antagonists on serial spatial reversal learning in rats. Boulougouris, V., Glennon, J.C., Robbins, T.W. Neuropsychopharmacology (2008) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of excitotoxic lesions of the substantia innominata, ventral and dorsal globus pallidus on visual discrimination acquisition, performance and reversal in the rat. Evenden, J.L., Marston, H.M., Jones, G.H., Giardini, V., Lenard, L., Everitt, B.J., Robbins, T.W. Behav. Brain Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Impairment of cingulothalamic learning-related neuronal coding in rabbits exposed to cocaine in utero: general and sex-specific effects. Taylor, C.L., Freeman, J.H., Holt, W., Gabriel, M. Behav. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Conditional inactivation of presenilin 1 prevents amyloid accumulation and temporarily rescues contextual and spatial working memory impairments in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice. Saura, C.A., Chen, G., Malkani, S., Choi, S.Y., Takahashi, R.H., Zhang, D., Gouras, G.K., Kirkwood, A., Morris, R.G., Shen, J. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Mice deficient for the synaptic vesicle protein Rab3a show impaired spatial reversal learning and increased explorative activity but none of the behavioral changes shown by mice deficient for the Rab3a regulator Gdi1. D'Adamo, P., Wolfer, D.P., Kopp, C., Tobler, I., Toniolo, D., Lipp, H.P. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (-/-) mice exhibit an increased sensitivity to the disruptive effects of anandamide or oleamide in a working memory water maze task. Varvel, S.A., Cravatt, B.F., Engram, A.E., Lichtman, A.H. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Improved reversal learning and altered fear conditioning in transgenic mice with regionally restricted p25 expression. Angelo, M., Plattner, F., Irvine, E.E., Giese, K.P. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Enhanced auditory reversal learning by genetic activation of protein kinase C in small groups of rat hippocampal neurons. Neill, J.C., Sarkisian, M.R., Wang, Y., Liu, Z., Yu, L., Tandon, P., Zhang, G., Holmes, G.L., Geller, A.I. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
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