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MeSH Review

Mucopolysaccharidosis II

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Disease relevance of Mucopolysaccharidosis II


High impact information on Mucopolysaccharidosis II


Chemical compound and disease context of Mucopolysaccharidosis II

  • Chromatograms of the chondroitin ABC lyase digests of samples from nine patients with Hunter's syndrome all showed a major peak for unsaturated disaccharide-4-sulfate, derived from dermatan sulfate, and another specific but unidentified peak (peak x) [9].
  • Reliability of the use of fructose 1-phosphate to detect Hunter cells in fibroblast-cultures of obligate carriers of the Hunter syndrome [10].
  • After BMT, the pMPS/creatine ratio in white matter lesions of patient 3, with Hunter syndrome, was slightly decreased, but in none of the patients was the ratio ever below the control ratios, even 7 y after BMT [11].
  • Specific odds of a female being a carrier of Hunter syndrome were based on serum levels of iduronate 2-sulphate sulphatase activity [12].
  • We present a case of an 8-mo-old infant with Hunter's syndrome who was maintained on very large doses of fentanyl and midazolam and who could not be weaned from these drugs by conventional taper [13].

Biological context of Mucopolysaccharidosis II


Anatomical context of Mucopolysaccharidosis II


Gene context of Mucopolysaccharidosis II

  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (i.e., Hurler, Hurler-Scheie, and Scheie syndromes) and type II (i.e., Hunter syndrome) are lysosomal storage disorders resulting from alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) deficiency and iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) deficiency, respectively [24].
  • Deletions of the IDS gene can include a conserved locus that is tightly linked to FRAXA, suggesting that deletion of nearby genes may contribute to the variable clinical severity noted in Hunter syndrome [25].
  • Mutations causing IDS deficiency in humans result in the lysosomal storage of these glycosaminoglycans and Hunter syndrome, an X chromosome-linked disease [26].
  • Despite the successful use of hematopoietic cell transplantation for a variety of lysosomal and peroxisomal storage diseases, limited benefit occurs following transplantation in either the severe or mild forms of Hunter syndrome [27].
  • Expression of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) from three different promoters in four retroviral vectors was studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with Hunter syndrome (PBL(MPS)), i.e., the LTR in vectors L2SN and L2, avian beta-actin promoter in LB2, and the CMV early promoter in LNC2 [28].


  1. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome): mutation "hot spots" in the iduronate-2-sulfatase gene. Rathmann, M., Bunge, S., Beck, M., Kresse, H., Tylki-Szymanska, A., Gal, A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Severe aortic stenosis in systemic lupus erythematosus and mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter's syndrome). Zimmermann, B., Lally, E.V., Sharma, S.C., Schoen, F.J., Kaplan, S.R. Clinical cardiology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Comparison of SSCP analysis and CFLP analysis for mutation detection in the human iduronate 2-sulfatase gene. Maddox, L.O., Li, P., Bennett, A., Descartes, M., Thompson, J.N. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. A new DNA marker tightly linked to the fragile X locus (FRAXA). Suthers, G.K., Callen, D.F., Hyland, V.J., Kozman, H.M., Baker, E., Eyre, H., Harper, P.S., Roberts, S.H., Hors-Cayla, M.C., Davies, K.E. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Myotubular myopathy in a girl with a deletion at Xq27-q28 and unbalanced X inactivation assigns the MTM1 gene to a 600-kb region. Dahl, N., Hu, L.J., Chery, M., Fardeau, M., Gilgenkrantz, S., Nivelon-Chevallier, A., Sidaner-Noisette, I., Mugneret, F., Gouyon, J.B., Gal, A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Detection of hunter heterozygotes by enzymatic analysis of hair roots. Nwokoro, N., Neufeld, E.F. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  7. X-linked Hunter syndrome: the heterozygous phenotype in cell culture. Migeon, B.R., Sprenkle, J.A., Liebaers, I., Scott, J.F., Neufeld, E.F. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Correction of Hunter syndrome in the MPSII mouse model by AAV2/8-mediated gene delivery. Cardone, M., Polito, V.A., Pepe, S., Mann, L., D'Azzo, A., Auricchio, A., Ballabio, A., Cosma, M.P. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Liquid-chromatographic determination of urinary glycosaminoglycans for differential diagnosis of genetic mucopolysaccharidoses. Kodama, C., Ototani, N., Isemura, M., Aikawa, J., Yosizawa, Z. Clin. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Reliability of the use of fructose 1-phosphate to detect Hunter cells in fibroblast-cultures of obligate carriers of the Hunter syndrome. Tønnesen, T., Güttler, F., Lykkelund, C. Hum. Genet. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Evaluation of accumulated mucopolysaccharides in the brain of patients with mucopolysaccharidoses by (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after bone marrow transplantation. Takahashi, Y., Sukegawa, K., Aoki, M., Ito, A., Suzuki, K., Sakaguchi, H., Watanabe, M., Isogai, K., Mizuno, S., Hoshi, H., Kuwata, K., Tomatsu, S., Kato, S., Ito, T., Kondo, N., Orii, T. Pediatr. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Carrier detection in Hunter syndrome. Archer, I.M., Young, I.D., Rees, D.W., Oladimeji, A., Wusteman, F.S., Harper, P.S. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. The use of dexmedetomidine to facilitate opioid and benzodiazepine detoxification in an infant. Finkel, J.C., Elrefai, A. Anesth. Analg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Iduronate sulfatase analysis of hair roots for identification of Hunter syndrome heterozygotes. Yutaka, T., Fluharty, A.L., Stevens, R.L., Kihara, H. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. The iduronate sulfatase gene: isolation of a 1.2-Mb YAC contig spanning the entire gene and identification of heterogeneous deletions in patients with Hunter syndrome. Palmieri, G., Capra, V., Romano, G., D'Urso, M., Johnson, S., Schlessinger, D., Morris, P., Hopwood, J., Di Natale, P., Gatti, R. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Assessment of iduronate-2-sulfatase mRNA expression in Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II). Crotty, P.L., Whitley, C.B. Hum. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Mutations in the iduronate-2-sulfatase gene in five Norwegians with Hunter syndrome. Olsen, T.C., Eiken, H.G., Knappskog, P.M., Kase, B.F., Månsson, J.E., Boman, H., Apold, J. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Genetics of Hunter syndrome: carrier detection, new mutations, segregation and linkage analysis. Chase, D.S., Morris, A.H., Ballabio, A., Pepper, S., Giannelli, F., Adinolfi, M. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Genetic complementation studies of multiple sulfatase deficiency. Horwitz, A.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Preclinical studies of lymphocyte gene therapy for mild Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II). Braun, S.E., Pan, D., Aronovich, E.L., Jonsson, J.J., McIvor, R.S., Whitley, C.B. Hum. Gene Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Iduronate sulfatase activity in serum, lymphocytes, and fibroblasts--simplified diagnosis of the Hunter syndrome. Liebaers, I., Neufeld, E. Pediatr. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Iduronate sulfatase in amniotic fluid: an aid in the prenatal diagnosis of the hunter syndrome. Liebaers, I., Di Natale, P., Neufeld, E.F. J. Pediatr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification of an alternative transcript from the human iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) gene. Malmgren, H., Carlberg, B.M., Pettersson, U., Bondeson, M.L. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular genetic defect underlying alpha-L-iduronidase pseudodeficiency. Aronovich, E.L., Pan, D., Whitley, C.B. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Frequent deletions at Xq28 indicate genetic heterogeneity in Hunter syndrome. Wilson, P.J., Suthers, G.K., Callen, D.F., Baker, E., Nelson, P.V., Cooper, A., Wraith, J.E., Sutherland, G.R., Morris, C.P., Hopwood, J.J. Hum. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Hunter syndrome: isolation of an iduronate-2-sulfatase cDNA clone and analysis of patient DNA. Wilson, P.J., Morris, C.P., Anson, D.S., Occhiodoro, T., Bielicki, J., Clements, P.R., Hopwood, J.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Hematopoietic cell transplantation for mucopolysaccharidosis IIB (Hunter syndrome). Peters, C., Krivit, W. Bone Marrow Transplant. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. "Supercharged Cells" for delivery of recombinant human iduronate-2-sulfatase. Pan, D., Jonsson, J.J., Braun, S.E., McIvor, R.S., Whitley, C.B. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
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