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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Genetic Drift

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Disease relevance of Genetic Drift


High impact information on Genetic Drift

  • Genetic anthropology of the colorectal cancer-susceptibility allele APC I1307K: evidence of genetic drift within the Ashkenazim [3].
  • Allelic association between pairs of loci is derived in terms of the association probability rho as a function of recombination theta, effective population size N, linear systematic pressure v, and time t, predicting both rho(rt), the decrease of association from founders and rho(ct), the increase by genetic drift, with rho(t) = rho(rt) + rho(ct) [4].
  • A lower value is seen for Y-chromosome STRs, reflecting a relative lack of continental population structure, as a result of rapid mutation and genetic drift [5].
  • Since it seems reasonable that the A- allele is subject to positive selection by malaria, whereas the other alleles are neutral, G6PD may lend itself to the analysis of the role of random genetic drift and selection in determining allele frequencies within a single genetic locus in human populations [6].
  • The ABO and Rh systems of the population in 26 residential units in the province of Ferrara were studied to detect the effect of genetic drift on the differentiation of gene frequencies [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Genetic Drift


Biological context of Genetic Drift


Anatomical context of Genetic Drift

  • Significant differences in body mass, relative testis size, position during the first tube-test encounter, and baseline testosterone were found among the replicate lines within linetype, which indicates founder effects, random genetic drift, unique mutations, and/or multiple responses to selection [14].

Associations of Genetic Drift with chemical compounds

  • We have found that the differences between individuals in the rate of evolution of lamivudine resistance arise due to genetic drift affecting the relative frequency of M184I and M184V prior to therapy [15].
  • The analyses suggested that the Faroese mtDNA pool has been affected by genetic drift, and is among the most homogenous and isolated in the North Atlantic region [16].
  • The C4 allele was present at a low frequency (less than 0.01), which suggests that this allele probably existed in the ancestral Mongoloid population at a low frequency and increased in frequency in Amerindians due to genetic drift or other factors [17].
  • These elevated frequencies may be the result of genetic drift or of selective pressure on TNF itself or on neighboring genes, including the HLA [18].
  • Evidence of genetic drift of serologic types and of some increase in the prevalence of erythromycin-resistant strains has appeared [19].

Gene context of Genetic Drift

  • The patterns of nucleotide substitutions and amino acid replacements between Est-5B and Est-6 are consistent with the hypothesis that mutation and genetic drift are responsible for the differences between these two genes [20].
  • Allelic and haplotypic frequency distributions reveal marked differences between the two populations in spite of their geographical proximity: the Aka exhibit high frequencies for several alleles, especially at the DPB1 locus (0.695 for DPB1*0402), probably due to rapid genetic drift, while the Bantu distributions are more even [21].
  • These sites of the ATPase 6 gene might lose the selective constraint in D. melanogaster, and the amino-acid substitutions can be explained by neutral mutations and random genetic drift [22].
  • Due to the similarity of the MP19 and GMP-17 proteins, it is interesting to speculate that the lens MP19 and the lymphocyte-associated GMP-17 may have originated from one primordial gene which, through genetic drift, resulted in two separate proteins having similar functions in two widely separated tissue types [23].
  • The OV NZ2 gene, but not the OV NZ7 gene, is homologous to the mammalian VEGF genes at the DNA level, suggesting that the gene has been acquired from a mammalian host and is undergoing genetic drift [24].


  1. Evolutionary drift of the argF and argl genes. Coding for isoenzyme forms of ornithine transcarbamylase in E. coli K12. Sens, D., Natter, W., James, E. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Influence of random genetic drift on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env evolution during chronic infection. Shriner, D., Shankarappa, R., Jensen, M.A., Nickle, D.C., Mittler, J.E., Margolick, J.B., Mullins, J.I. Genetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Genetic anthropology of the colorectal cancer-susceptibility allele APC I1307K: evidence of genetic drift within the Ashkenazim. Niell, B.L., Long, J.C., Rennert, G., Gruber, S.B. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. The optimal measure of allelic association. Morton, N.E., Zhang, W., Taillon-Miller, P., Ennis, S., Kwok, P.Y., Collins, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. The distribution of human genetic diversity: a comparison of mitochondrial, autosomal, and Y-chromosome data. Jorde, L.B., Watkins, W.S., Bamshad, M.J., Dixon, M.E., Ricker, C.E., Seielstad, M.T., Batzer, M.A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Polymorphic sites in the African population detected by sequence analysis of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene outline the evolution of the variants A and A-. Vulliamy, T.J., Othman, A., Town, M., Nathwani, A., Falusi, A.G., Mason, P.J., Luzzatto, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Population genetics in the province of Ferrara. I. Genetic distances and geographic distances. Zanardi, P., Dell'Acqua, G., Menini, C., Barrai, I. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 population bottleneck during indinavir therapy causes a genetic drift in the env quasispecies. Ibáñez, A., Clotet, B., Martínez, M.A. J. Gen. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Evidence for effect of random genetic drift on G+C content after lateral transfer of fucose pathway genes to Escherichia coli K-12. Aoyama, K., Haase, A.M., Reeves, P.R. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Humoral immune response to hypervariable region 1 of the putative envelope glycoprotein (gp70) of hepatitis C virus. Kato, N., Sekiya, H., Ootsuyama, Y., Nakazawa, T., Hijikata, M., Ohkoshi, S., Shimotohno, K. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Cystic fibrosis mutation delta F508 in Finland: other mutations predominate. Kere, J., Savilahti, E., Norio, R., Estivill, X., de la Chapelle, A. Hum. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Familial Mediterranean fever: prevalence, penetrance and genetic drift. Gershoni-Baruch, R., Shinawi, M., Leah, K., Badarnah, K., Brik, R. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Lactose digestion capacity in Tokelauans: a case for the role of gene flow and genetic drift in establishing the lactose absorption allele in a Polynesian population. Cheer, S.M., Allen, J.S., Huntsman, J. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Dominance, plasma testosterone levels, and testis size in house mice artificially selected for high activity levels. Klomberg, K.F., Garland, T., Swallow, J.G., Carter, P.A. Physiol. Behav. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Evolution of lamivudine resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals: the relative roles of drift and selection. Frost, S.D., Nijhuis, M., Schuurman, R., Boucher, C.A., Brown, A.J. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands. Als, T.D., Jorgensen, T.H., Børglum, A.D., Petersen, P.A., Mors, O., Wang, A.G. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Transferrin subtypes in 11 south China minority populations. Chen, J.X., Chen, Q., Xu, J.J., Du, R.F. Hum. Hered. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. High frequency of TNF alleles -238A and -376A in individuals from northern Sardinia. Wirz, S.A., Morale, M.C., Marchetti, B., Barr, A.M., Sotgiu, S., Rosati, G., Pugliatti, M., Sanna, M.V., Giliberto, O., Bartfai, T., Conti, B. Cytokine (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Changes and changing concepts in the biology of group A streptococci and in the epidemiology of streptococcal infections. Wannamaker, L.W. Rev. Infect. Dis. (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Cloning of the esterase-5 locus from Drosophila pseudoobscura and comparison with its homologue in D. melanogaster. Brady, J.P., Richmond, R.C., Oakeshott, J.G. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. HLA class II polymorphism in Aka Pygmies and Bantu Congolese and a reassessment of HLA-DRB1 African diversity. Renquin, J., Sanchez-Mazas, A., Halle, L., Rivalland, S., Jaeger, G., Mbayo, K., Bianchi, F., Kaplan, C. Tissue Antigens (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Evolution of the mitochondrial ATPase 6 gene in Drosophila: unusually high level of polymorphism in D. melanogaster. Kaneko, M., Satta, Y., Matsuura, E.T., Chigusa, S.I. Genet. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. The mouse lens fiber-cell intrinsic membrane protein MP19 gene (Lim2) and granule membrane protein GMP-17 gene (Nkg7): Isolation and sequence analysis of two neighboring genes. Zhou, L., Li, X., Church, R.L. Mol. Vis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Homologs of vascular endothelial growth factor are encoded by the poxvirus orf virus. Lyttle, D.J., Fraser, K.M., Fleming, S.B., Mercer, A.A., Robinson, A.J. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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