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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Gene Flow

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Disease relevance of Gene Flow

  • CD17 A-->T and CDs 41/42-TTCT were suggested to be introduced by gene-flow from southern China. Otherwise, Hb Korea, CDs 89/90 -GT and a novel beta-thalassemia mutation, CD 131 CAG-->TAG, were only identified in Koreans [1].

High impact information on Gene Flow

  • Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup I reveals distinct domains of prehistoric gene flow in europe [2].
  • Evidence for gene flow to 75 of 138 sentinel plants of A. stolonifera and to 29 of 69 resident Agrostis plants was based on seedling progeny survival after spraying with glyphosate in greenhouse assays and positive TraitChek, PCR, and sequencing results [3].
  • GST estimates (a measure of genetic differentiation inversely proportional to gene flow) from mtDNA sequences vary between 0.13 and 0.39 and are typically five times greater than GST estimates from STR loci (0.05-0.08) [4].
  • Populations of the "Louisiana iris" species Iris fulva, I. hexagona, and I. nelsonii were examined genetically to test for interspecific gene flow between I. fulva and I. hexagona, for pollen- versus seed-mediated introgression between these species, and for the presumed hybrid origin of I. nelsonii [5].
  • Such observations suggest very strong selective pressures exerted by environmental ethanol that oppose the gene flow due to adult dispersal between contiguous habitats [6].

Biological context of Gene Flow

  • A steep (0.55-0.15) allele frequency cline connects differentiated populations between the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound. We demonstrate an annual gene flow/mortality cycle in cline populations whereby gene frequencies after mortality are correlated with salinity and enzyme activity [7].
  • Estimates of gene flow in Drosophila pseudoobscura determined from nucleotide sequence analysis of the alcohol dehydrogenase region [8].
  • The more frequent haplotype (Med 2) is the same in Calabria and in Sardinia, where it accounts for about 90% of the G6PD Mediterranean mutations, despite the fact that gene flow between the populations of Sardinia and Southern Italy must have been limited [9].
  • Diadema savignyi is characterized by high rates of gene flow from Kiribati in the central Pacific all the way to the East African Coast. In the Atlantic, there is a biogeographic barrier between the Caribbean and Brazil, possibly caused by fresh water outflow from the Amazon and the Orinoco Rivers [10].
  • We conclude that clinal variation at the Alb locus reflects a balance between gene flow and diversifying selection that results from elevational changes in fitness rankings among alternative genotypes [11].

Associations of Gene Flow with chemical compounds

  • Furthermore, it is the first study of a Pacific population to directly link lactose absorption with gene flow [12].
  • These results suggest biological continuity in the Azapa Valley during 5,000 years of prehistory, with nonsignificant gene flow during the late Middle Horizon (AD 750-1100) and Late Intermediate (AD 1100-1476) periods [13].
  • Two populations of S. laurina, separated by > 1000 km, showed a high within-population variation (53.7%) and a low gene flow (Nm = 0.447). upgma phenograms depicted a tendency of accessions to group according to their geographical locations in all the three plant species [14].
  • Gene flow and rate of inbreeding (delta F) were calculated from demographic data for a community previously reported to be isolated from outside genetic influences of immigration [15].
  • Extensive morphological variation of tetraploid birch (Betula pubescens) in Iceland is believed to be due to gene flow from diploid dwarf birch (B. nana) by means of introgressive hybridization [16].

Gene context of Gene Flow

  • The widespread occurrence of CA1 3 variants in the Western Pacific suggests that this variant was once common in an aboriginal population of this region, from which it was scattered by gene flow [17].
  • Comprehensive molecular studies of OCA2 genes in Amerindian populations could yield information on the possible origin of the albino gene present in many of these populations, in addition to the gene flow that occurred among some of them in past generations [18].
  • It is suggested that this fairly low level of interpopulation differentiation for the examined loci except Idh may be explained by extensive gene flow in combination with natural selection [19].
  • Contrary to what is expected for markers affected only by gene flow and genetic drift, the spatial correlograms show distinct modes of gene frequency variation: there are significant clinal patterns (at the GLO and ESD loci), significant non-clinal patterns (AK, ADA, 6-PGD and GPT) and marginally significant patterns (PGP and SOD) [20].
  • Each HLA-DRB1 allele was typically found in combination with just one DQA1-DQB1 haplotype, most likely as a result of some form of random genetic drift and reduced gene flow from non-Amerindians [21].


  1. Beta-thalassemia in the Korean population. Park, S.S., Cho, H.I. Int. J. Hematol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup I reveals distinct domains of prehistoric gene flow in europe. Rootsi, S., Magri, C., Kivisild, T., Benuzzi, G., Help, H., Bermisheva, M., Kutuev, I., Barać, L., Pericić, M., Balanovsky, O., Pshenichnov, A., Dion, D., Grobei, M., Zhivotovsky, L.A., Battaglia, V., Achilli, A., Al-Zahery, N., Parik, J., King, R., Cinnioğlu, C., Khusnutdinova, E., Rudan, P., Balanovska, E., Scheffrahn, W., Simonescu, M., Brehm, A., Goncalves, R., Rosa, A., Moisan, J.P., Chaventre, A., Ferak, V., Füredi, S., Oefner, P.J., Shen, P., Beckman, L., Mikerezi, I., Terzić, R., Primorac, D., Cambon-Thomsen, A., Krumina, A., Torroni, A., Underhill, P.A., Santachiara-Benerecetti, A.S., Villems, R., Semino, O. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker. Watrud, L.S., Lee, E.H., Fairbrother, A., Burdick, C., Reichman, J.R., Bollman, M., Storm, M., King, G., Van de Water, P.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic relationships among Pacific Island and Asian populations. Lum, J.K., Cann, R.L., Martinson, J.J., Jorde, L.B. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Pollen-mediated introgression and hybrid speciation in Louisiana irises. Arnold, M.L., Buckner, C.M., Robinson, J.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Short-range genetic structure of Drosophila melanogaster populations in an Afrotropical urban area and its significance. Vouidibio, J., Capy, P., Defaye, D., Pla, E., Sandrin, J., Csink, A., David, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Maintenance of an aminopeptidase allele frequency cline by natural selection. Koehn, R.K., Newell, R.I., Immermann, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Estimates of gene flow in Drosophila pseudoobscura determined from nucleotide sequence analysis of the alcohol dehydrogenase region. Schaeffer, S.W., Miller, E.L. Genetics (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. G6PD haplotypes spanning Xq28 from F8C to red/green color vision. Filosa, S., Calabrò, V., Lania, G., Vulliamy, T.J., Brancati, C., Tagarelli, A., Luzzatto, L., Martini, G. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Population structure and speciation in tropical seas: global phylogeography of the sea urchin Diadema. Lessios, H.A., Kessing, B.D., Pearse, J.S. Evolution (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Natural selection drives altitudinal divergence at the albumin locus in deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus. Storz, J.F., Dubach, J.M. Evolution (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Lactose digestion capacity in Tokelauans: a case for the role of gene flow and genetic drift in establishing the lactose absorption allele in a Polynesian population. Cheer, S.M., Allen, J.S., Huntsman, J. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Nonmetric cranial trait variation and prehistoric biocultural change in the Azapa Valley, Chile. Sutter, R.C., Mertz, L. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Genetic diversity across natural populations of three montane plant species from the Western Ghats, India revealed by intersimple sequence repeats. Deshpande, A.U., Apte, G.S., Bahulikar, R.A., Lagu, M.D., Kulkarni, B.G., Suresh, H.S., Singh, N.P., Rao, M.K., Gupta, V.S., Pant, A., Ranjekar, P.K. Mol. Ecol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Increased heterozygosity and child growth in an isolated subsistence agricultural community in the valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. Little, B.B., Malina, R.M., Buschang, P.H. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular evidence for introgressive hybridization in birch. Thórsson, A.T., Salmela, E., Anamthawat-Jónsson, K. J. Hered. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Population genetic studies of the Philippine Negritos. III. Identification of the carbonic anhydrase-1 variant with CA1 Guam. Omoto, K., Ueda, S., Goriki, K., Takahashi, N., Misawa, S., Pagaran, I.G. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Albinism (OCA2) in Amerindians. Woolf, C.M. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Variation of allozyme loci in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from the former USSR. Bubli, O.A., Rakitskaya, T.A., Imasheva, A.G. Heredity (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Diversity of some gene frequencies in European and Asian populations. III. Spatial correlogram analysis. Barbujani, G. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. HLA class II diversity in seven Amerindian populations. Clues about the origins of the Aché. Tsuneto, L.T., Probst, C.M., Hutz, M.H., Salzano, F.M., Rodriguez-Delfin, L.A., Zago, M.A., Hill, K., Hurtado, A.M., Ribeiro-dos-Santos, A.K., Petzl-Erler, M.L. Tissue Antigens (2003) [Pubmed]
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