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Gene Review

GPT  -  glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (alanine...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AAT1, ALT1, Alanine aminotransferase 1, GPT 1, GPT1, ...
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Disease relevance of GPT

  • The cloned GPT gene and associated polymorphisms will be useful for linkage and physical mapping of disease loci that map to the terminus of 8q, including atypical vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD1) and epidermolysis bullosa simplex, type Ogna (EBS1) [1].
  • Serial serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were retrospectively analyzed and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was also evaluated to correlate with the progression of this disease [2].
  • Moreover, the group with non-A, non-B (NANB) cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis has shown a statistically significant correlation between TPA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) [3].
  • Serum of patients with liver disease exhibited elevated ADH levels paralleled by increased gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), but not alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities [4].
  • No evidence was found of association between GPT phenotypes and either nephrological diseases or PKU (phenylketonuria) [5].

Psychiatry related information on GPT


High impact information on GPT


Chemical compound and disease context of GPT


Biological context of GPT

  • The amino acid sequence is highly homologous to that of rat GPT (87.9% identity) recently determined [Ishiguro, M., Suzuki, M., Takio, K., Matsuzawa, T., & Titani, K. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 6048-6053] [20].
  • All of the crucial amino acid residues are conserved in human GPT, which seem to be hydrogen bonding to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in rat GPT by the sequence homology to other alpha-aminotransferases with known tertiary structures [20].
  • Gene frequencies of common and rare GPT alleles derived from an investigation of 1139 unrelated, healthy individuals from southwestern Germany are given [21].
  • First, two cosmids shown to contain the GPT sequence were derived from a chromosome 8-specific library [1].
  • The human GPT genomic sequence spans 2,7 kb and consists of 11 exons, ranging in size from 79 to 243 bp [1].

Anatomical context of GPT


Associations of GPT with chemical compounds

  • The more abundant expression of GPT2 than GPT, especially in muscle and fat, suggests a unique and previously unrecognized role of this gene product in glucose, amino acid, and fatty acid metabolism and homeostasis [26].
  • Two frequent protein variants of glutamate pyruvate transminase (GPT) (E.C. have been used as genetic markers in humans for more than two decades, although chromosomal mapping of the GPT locus in the 1980s produced conflicting results [1].
  • The results are inconclusive for MNSs, K, Le, Se, GPT and Inv [27].
  • In addition, a method for the consecutive determination of esterase D (ESD) and GPT on the same gel using the malic acid buffer system is described [22].
  • Prospectively, serial measurements of AFP were performed in 239 patients with acetaminophen intoxication and a peak alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level above 1000 U/L [28].

Regulatory relationships of GPT


Other interactions of GPT

  • Analysis of correspondences indicated GPT, PGM1, and GLO I as the systems contributing most to differentiation within the province [30].
  • The increases in bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were markedly attenuated when HGF was administered 30 min before ANIT and again at 6, 12, 24, 30, and 36 h after ANIT [31].
  • The activities of GPT and LDH in the liver tumor samples that showed undetectable levels of MGMT activity were similar to those in the surrounding normal liver tissues [32].
  • Among the T. cruzi strains, there were two different isozyme (possibly allozyme) types of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), fructokinase (FK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), GOT, MDH and three types of ME [33].
  • Serum alanine aminotransferase is associated with serum adiponectin, C-reactive protein and apolipoprotein B in young healthy men [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GPT


  1. Human glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT): localization to 8q24.3, cDNA and genomic sequences, and polymorphic sites. Sohocki, M.M., Sullivan, L.S., Harrison, W.R., Sodergren, E.J., Elder, F.F., Weinstock, G., Tanase, S., Daiger, S.P. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Sequential changes of serum aminotransferase levels in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Wu, K.L., Lu, S.N., Changchien, C.S., Chiu, K.W., Kuo, C.H., Chuah, S.K., Liu, J.W., Lin, M.C., Eng, H.L., Chen, S.S., Lee, C.M., Chen, C.L. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Alpha-fetoprotein and tissue polypeptide antigen in non neoplastic hepatic disorders. Gallo, V., Cerutti, E., Riberi, A., Re, M., Petrino, R., Pecchio, F. J. Nucl. Med. Allied Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Quantitation of alcohol dehydrogenase in human tissue and serum by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bühler, R., von Wartburg, J.P. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Genetics of the GPT system. Family, mother/child and association studies. Olaisen, B. Clin. Genet. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Red cell enzyme and serum protein gene markers in Fijians. Kirk, R.L., Blake, N.M., Mataika, J.U. Gene geography : a computerized bulletin on human gene frequencies. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. The associations of physical activity and adiposity with alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Lawlor, D.A., Sattar, N., Smith, G.D., Ebrahim, S. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Differential effects of alcohol drinking pattern on liver enzymes in men and women. Stranges, S., Freudenheim, J.L., Muti, P., Farinaro, E., Russell, M., Nochajski, T.H., Trevisan, M. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Use of serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin values to exclude alcoholic hepatitis from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot study. Ohtsuka, T., Tsutsumi, M., Fukumura, A., Tsuchishima, M., Takase, S. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Various S-GOT/S-GPT ratios in nonviral liver disorders and related physical conditions and life-style. Mukai, M., Ozasa, K., Hayashi, K., Kawai, K. Dig. Dis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Lamivudine as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis B in the United States. Dienstag, J.L., Schiff, E.R., Wright, T.L., Perrillo, R.P., Hann, H.W., Goodman, Z., Crowther, L., Condreay, L.D., Woessner, M., Rubin, M., Brown, N.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Idiopathic biliary ductopenia in adults without symptoms of liver disease. Moreno, A., Carreño, V., Cano, A., González, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Routes of infection, viremia, and liver disease in blood donors found to have hepatitis C virus infection. Conry-Cantilena, C., VanRaden, M., Gibble, J., Melpolder, J., Shakil, A.O., Viladomiu, L., Cheung, L., DiBisceglie, A., Hoofnagle, J., Shih, J.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Treatment of chronic hepatitis D with interferon alfa-2a. Farci, P., Mandas, A., Coiana, A., Lai, M.E., Desmet, V., Van Eyken, P., Gibo, Y., Caruso, L., Scaccabarozzi, S., Criscuolo, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Post-radiation survival time in hepatocellular carcinoma based on predictors for CT-determined, transarterial embolization and various other parameters. Leung, T.K., Lee, C.M., Shen, L.K., Chen, H.C., Kuo, Y.C., Chiou, J.F. World J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of low doses of atorvastatin on adiponectin, glucose homeostasis, and clinical inflammatory markers in kidney transplant recipients. Bayés, B., Granada, M.L., Lauzurica, R., Pastor, M.C., Navarro, M., Bonet, J., Llopis, M.A., Romero, R. Transplant. Proc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Report : the protective effect of aloe vera juice on lindane induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity. Oe, E., Eo, F., If, U., Ej, A. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Haptoglobin polymorphism in patients with preeclampsia. Depypere, H.T., Langlois, M.R., Delanghe, J.R., Temmerman, M., Dhont, M. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Hepatitis associated with low-dose venlafaxine for postmenopausal vasomotor symptoms. Phillips, B.B., Digmann, R.R., Beck, M.G. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Complete amino acid sequence of human liver cytosolic alanine aminotransferase (GPT) determined by a combination of conventional and mass spectral methods. Ishiguro, M., Takio, K., Suzuki, M., Oyama, R., Matsuzawa, T., Titani, K. Biochemistry (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Polymorphism of alanine aminotransferase (E.C. common and rare alleles. Kömpf, J., Ritter, H. Hum. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Agarose gel electrophoresis of human erythrocyte glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT EC Bär, W., Biedermann, V. Forensic Sci. Int. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Human chronic fascioliasis: a possible cause of unexplained abnormal liver tests. Hussein, N.G., Mahmoud, M.M., Elsayad, M.H., Abdel-Tawab, S.M. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Pharmacokinetics of an antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide against rev from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the adult male rat following single injections and continuous infusion. Iversen, P.L., Mata, J., Tracewell, W.G., Zon, G. Antisense Res. Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Continuous HGF supply from HGF-expressing fibroblasts transplanted into spleen prevents CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Kaido, T., Yamaoka, S., Tanaka, J., Funaki, N., Kasamatsu, T., Seto, S., Nakamura, T., Imamura, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. cDNA cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of a novel human alanine aminotransferase. Yang, R.Z., Blaileanu, G., Hansen, B.C., Shuldiner, A.R., Gong, D.W. Genomics (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. A linkage study of the loci for Huntington's disease and some common polymorphic markers. Brackenridge, C.J., Case, J., Chiu, E., Propert, D.N., Teltscher, B., Wallace, D.C. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Alpha-fetoprotein is a predictor of outcome in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Schmidt, L.E., Dalhoff, K. Hepatology (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Iron overload in kidney transplants: prospective analysis of biochemical and genetic markers. Lorenz, M., Kletzmayr, J., Huber, A., Hörl, W.H., Sunder-Plassmann, G., Födinger, M. Kidney Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Genetic structure of the human population in the Po delta. Beretta, M., Mazzetti, P., Mamolini, E., Gavina, R., Barale, R., Vullo, C., Ravani, A., Franze, A., Sapigni, T., Soracco, E. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. Reduction of alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-induced hepatotoxicity by recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor. Roos, F., Terrell, T.G., Godowski, P.J., Chamow, S.M., Schwall, R.H. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human liver tumors. Isowa, G., Ishizaki, K., Sadamoto, T., Tanaka, K., Yamaoka, Y., Ozawa, K., Ikenaga, M. Carcinogenesis (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Biochemical characterization of Trypanosoma spp by isozyme electrophoresis. Kreutzer, R.D., Sousa, O.E. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1981) [Pubmed]
  34. Serum alanine aminotransferase is associated with serum adiponectin, C-reactive protein and apolipoprotein B in young healthy men. Kazumi, T., Kawaguchi, A., Hirano, T., Yoshino, G. Horm. Metab. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Adenosine deaminase and guanosine deaminase activities in sera of patients with viral hepatitis. Kalkan, A., Bulut, V., Erel, O., Avci, S., Bingol, N.K. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (1999) [Pubmed]
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