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Gene Review

CA1  -  carbonic anhydrase I

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CA-I, CAB, Car1, Carbonate dehydratase I, Carbonic anhydrase 1, ...
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Disease relevance of CA1


Psychiatry related information on CA1


High impact information on CA1


Chemical compound and disease context of CA1


Biological context of CA1


Anatomical context of CA1

  • Additionally, staining was observed in neurons in the stratum oriens, a population of neurons at the periphery of the CA4 sector, scattered, probably short-axon perikarya in the CA1 sector, and fibers in the perforant path and the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus [23].
  • They measured the size, shape, and variability in orientation of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal subfields CA1-CA4 and the subiculum in computer images of 10-micron coronal sections stained with cresyl violet [24].
  • We measured the volume, pyramidal cell density, and neuronal and nuclear cross-sectional areas in sectors CA1 through CA4 in right and left hippocampi from the brains of 23 normal subjects (age range 4 to 98 years) in the Yakovlev Collection [25].
  • In strata oriens and pyramidale of CA1-CA3 subfields, parvalbumin neurons gave rise to dendrites that extended into adjacent strata [26].
  • This vulnerability may be related to their differential connectivity, e.g., those regions connectionally related to the cerebral cortex (dentate gyrus and CA1) are more vulnerable than those regions connectionally related to subcortical loci (subiculum and presubiculum) [26].

Associations of CA1 with chemical compounds

  • Here, we present evidence that CA II in red cell lysates can be quantitated by measuring CO2 hydratase activity in the presence of inhibitors that selectively inhibit the activity of CA I to a much greater extent than that of CA II [27].
  • Carbonic anhydrase isozyme-II-deficient mice lack the duodenal bicarbonate secretory response to prostaglandin E2 [28].
  • The structure shows a monomeric glycoprotein with a topology similar to that of other mammalian CA isozymes [29].
  • To prove that the tail (in this case the pyridinecarboxylic moieties) conferring water solubility to a sulfonamide CA inhibitor is more important than the ring to which the sulfonamido group is grafted, we also prepared dorzolamide derivatives incorporating such moieties [30].
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. The mitochondrial isozyme VB as a new target for sulfonamide and sulfamate inhibitors [31].

Physical interactions of CA1


Co-localisations of CA1


Regulatory relationships of CA1

  • Here we present experiments showing that several well characterized CA inhibitors largely prevent the adverse effects of expressing R14W CA IV in transfected COS-7 cells [38].
  • PURPOSE: Our primary goal was to determine whether increased expression of the transmembrane carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is regulated by the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene [39].
  • Di-/tri- and especially tetrapeptides incorporating the sequence DADD present in the carboxyterminal region of the bicarbonate/chloride anion exchanger AE1 strongly activate human carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozyme II, whereas they act as more inefficient activators of isozymes I and IV [40].
  • The distribution, morphology, synaptic coverage and postsynaptic targets of calbindin-containing interneurons and afferent pathways have been analyzed in the control and epileptic CA1 region of the human hippocampus [41].
  • Flow cytometric analysis showed that incubation of K562 cells with EP as well as hemin induced CA-I at the 3rd h, while alpha-globin was detected at the 8th h [42].

Other interactions of CA1

  • The surface epithelium of the colon contained both CA I and CA II [43].
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: CA IX (formerly MN protein) is a carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme whose expression is associated with human tumors [44].
  • These studies indicate that the membrane-associated CA in human eye, which was suspected from histochemical studies, is CA IV [21].
  • Pyramidal neurons in the CA1 and CA3 sectors were not immunoreactive [23].
  • These facts point to CAVII as a putative target of CA inhibitors that are used as antiepileptic drugs [45].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CA1


  1. Increased expression of erythropoietin receptor on blood vessels in the human epileptogenic hippocampus with sclerosis. Eid, T., Brines, M.L., Cerami, A., Spencer, D.D., Kim, J.H., Schweitzer, J.S., Ottersen, O.P., de Lanerolle, N.C. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. JIP1 regulates neuronal apoptosis in response to stress. Dong, Z., Zhou, L., Del Villar, K., Ghanevati, M., Tashjian, V., Miller, C.A. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Neuronal loss and neurofibrillary degeneration in the hippocampal cortex in late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Fukutani, Y., Cairns, N.J., Shiozawa, M., Sasaki, K., Sudo, S., Isaki, K., Lantos, P.L. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Immunohistochemical study of colorectal tumors for expression of a novel transmembrane carbonic anhydrase, MN/CA IX, with potential value as a marker of cell proliferation. Saarnio, J., Parkkila, S., Parkkila, A.K., Haukipuro, K., Pastoreková, S., Pastorek, J., Kairaluoma, M.I., Karttunen, T.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. A splice junction mutation in intron 2 of the carbonic anhydrase II gene of osteopetrosis patients from Arabic countries. Hu, P.Y., Roth, D.E., Skaggs, L.A., Venta, P.J., Tashian, R.E., Guibaud, P., Sly, W.S. Hum. Mutat. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Pyramidal neuron size in the hippocampus of schizophrenics correlates with total cell count and degree of cell disarray. Jönsson, S.A., Luts, A., Guldberg-Kjaer, N., Ohman, R. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Hippocampal connectivity and Alzheimer's dementia: effects of synapse loss and tangle frequency in a two-component model. Samuel, W., Masliah, E., Hill, L.R., Butters, N., Terry, R. Neurology (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Differential neuronal expression of manganese superoxide dismutase in Alzheimer's disease. Marcus, D.L., Strafaci, J.A., Freedman, M.L. Med. Sci. Monit. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Clinical and molecular heterogeneity in carbonic anhydrase II deficiency and prenatal diagnosis in an Italian family. Strisciuglio, P., Hu, P.Y., Lim, E.J., Ciccolella, J., Sly, W.S. J. Pediatr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Correlates of hippocampal neuron number in Alzheimer's disease and ischemic vascular dementia. Zarow, C., Vinters, H.V., Ellis, W.G., Weiner, M.W., Mungas, D., White, L., Chui, H.C. Ann. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Carbon dioxide transport and carbonic anhydrase in blood and muscle. Geers, C., Gros, G. Physiol. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. The carbonic anhydrase domain of receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta is a functional ligand for the axonal cell recognition molecule contactin. Peles, E., Nativ, M., Campbell, P.L., Sakurai, T., Martinez, R., Lev, S., Clary, D.O., Schilling, J., Barnea, G., Plowman, G.D., Grumet, M., Schlessinger, J. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. The role of carbonic anhydrases in renal physiology. Purkerson, J.M., Schwartz, G.J. Kidney Int. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Extracellular acidosis elevates carbonic anhydrase IX in human glioblastoma cells via transcriptional modulation that does not depend on hypoxia. Ihnatko, R., Kubes, M., Takacova, M., Sedlakova, O., Sedlak, J., Pastorek, J., Kopacek, J., Pastorekova, S. Int. J. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. The cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib is a potent inhibitor of human carbonic anhydrase II. Knudsen, J.F., Carlsson, U., Hammarström, P., Sokol, G.H., Cantilena, L.R. Inflammation (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Activation of mammalian skeletal-muscle carbonic anhydrase III by arginine modification. Tashian, R.E., Johansen, J.T., Christiansen, E., Chegwidden, W.R. Biosci. Rep. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Pharmacological and ocular hypotensive properties of topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Sugrue, M.F. Progress in retinal and eye research. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Quantitative analysis of benzodiazepine receptor in temporal lobe epilepsy: [(125)I]iomazenil autoradiographic study of surgically resected specimens. Sata, Y., Matsuda, K., Mihara, T., Aihara, M., Yagi, K., Yonekura, Y. Epilepsia (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. A study of several red cell enzyme markers in two samples of the Italian population. Report of new CA1 and PGD variant phenotypes. Barberio, C., Ranzani, G.N., Beretta, M., Antonini, G., Mura, G., Pardini, R., Zanella, A., Santachiara-Benerecetti, A.S. Gene geography : a computerized bulletin on human gene frequencies. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Proficiency in interscalene anesthesia-how many blocks are necessary? Rosenblatt, M.A., Fishkind, D. Journal of clinical anesthesia. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Localization of carbonic anhydrase IV in a specific capillary bed of the human eye. Hageman, G.S., Zhu, X.L., Waheed, A., Sly, W.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. cDNA cloning, sequence, and expression of carbonic anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: regulation by environmental CO2 concentration. Fukuzawa, H., Fujiwara, S., Yamamoto, Y., Dionisio-Sese, M.L., Miyachi, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. The distribution of chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity in the human hippocampus coincides with the pattern of resistance to epilepsy-induced neuronal damage. Munoz, D.G. Ann. Neurol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Size, shape, and orientation of neurons in the left and right hippocampus: investigation of normal asymmetries and alterations in schizophrenia. Zaidel, D.W., Esiri, M.M., Harrison, P.J. The American journal of psychiatry. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Hippocampal pyramidal cells and aging in the human: a quantitative study of neuronal loss in sectors CA1 to CA4. Mani, R.B., Lohr, J.B., Jeste, D.V. Exp. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampal formation of Alzheimer's diseased brain. Brady, D.R., Mufson, E.J. Neuroscience (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency: diagnosis and carrier detection using differential enzyme inhibition and inactivation. Sundaram, V., Rumbolo, P., Grubb, J., Strisciuglio, P., Sly, W.S. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Carbonic anhydrase isozyme-II-deficient mice lack the duodenal bicarbonate secretory response to prostaglandin E2. Leppilampi, M., Parkkila, S., Karttunen, T., Gut, M.O., Gros, G., Sjöblom, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression, assay, and structure of the extracellular domain of murine carbonic anhydrase XIV: implications for selective inhibition of membrane-associated isozymes. Whittington, D.A., Grubb, J.H., Waheed, A., Shah, G.N., Sly, W.S., Christianson, D.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Synthesis of water-soluble, topically effective, intraocular pressure-lowering aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides containing cationic or anionic moieties: is the tail more important than the ring? Scozzafava, A., Menabuoni, L., Mincione, F., Briganti, F., Mincione, G., Supuran, C.T. J. Med. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. The mitochondrial isozyme VB as a new target for sulfonamide and sulfamate inhibitors. Nishimori, I., Vullo, D., Innocenti, A., Scozzafava, A., Mastrolorenzo, A., Supuran, C.T. J. Med. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Catalysis and inhibition of human carbonic anhydrase IV. Baird, T.T., Waheed, A., Okuyama, T., Sly, W.S., Fierke, C.A. Biochemistry (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Differential expression of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in various types of anemia. Kuo, W.H., Yang, S.F., Hsieh, Y.S., Tsai, C.S., Hwang, W.L., Chu, S.C. Clin. Chim. Acta (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Cloning and characterization of MN, a human tumor-associated protein with a domain homologous to carbonic anhydrase and a putative helix-loop-helix DNA binding segment. Pastorek, J., Pastoreková, S., Callebaut, I., Mornon, J.P., Zelník, V., Opavský, R., Zat'ovicová, M., Liao, S., Portetelle, D., Stanbridge, E.J. Oncogene (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Binding of human carbonic anhydrase to human hemoglobin. Backman, L. Eur. J. Biochem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  36. Temporary changes of the AP-1 transcription factor binding activity in the gerbil hippocampus after transient global ischemia, and ischemic tolerance induction. Kapinya, K., Penzel, R., Sommer, C., Kiessling, M. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. BDNF and TrkB co-localize in CA1 neurons resistant to transient forebrain ischemia in the adult gerbil. Ferrer, I., Ballabriga, J., Martí, E., Pozas, E., Planas, A.M., Blasi, J. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Chemical chaperones protect from effects of apoptosis-inducing mutation in carbonic anhydrase IV identified in retinitis pigmentosa 17. Bonapace, G., Waheed, A., Shah, G.N., Sly, W.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Effects of von Hippel-Lindau gene mutation and methylation status on expression of transmembrane carbonic anhydrases in renal cell carcinoma. Ashida, S., Nishimori, I., Tanimura, M., Onishi, S., Shuin, T. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  40. Carbonic anhydrase activators: human isozyme II is strongly activated by oligopeptides incorporating the carboxyterminal sequence of the bicarbonate anion exchanger AE1. Scozzafava, A., Supuran, C.T. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  41. Synaptic reorganization of calbindin-positive neurons in the human hippocampal CA1 region in temporal lobe epilepsy. Wittner, L., Eross, L., Szabó, Z., Tóth, S., Czirják, S., Halász, P., Freund, T.F., Maglóczky, Z.S. Neuroscience (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. Induction of carbonic anhydrase I isozyme precedes the globin synthesis during erythropoiesis in K562 cells. Kondo, T., Sakai, M., Isobe, H., Taniguchi, N., Nishi, S., Kawakami, Y. Am. J. Hematol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  43. Amount and distribution of carbonic anhydrases CA I and CA II in the gastrointestinal tract. Lönnerholm, G., Selking, O., Wistrand, P.J. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  44. Carbonic anhydrase IX, MN/CA IX: analysis of stomach complementary DNA sequence and expression in human and rat alimentary tracts. Pastoreková, S., Parkkila, S., Parkkila, A.K., Opavský, R., Zelník, V., Saarnio, J., Pastorek, J. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  45. Two developmental switches in GABAergic signalling: the K+-Cl- cotransporter KCC2 and carbonic anhydrase CAVII. Rivera, C., Voipio, J., Kaila, K. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  46. Carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes CA I and CA II in the human eye. Wistrand, P.J., Schenholm, M., Lönnerholm, G. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  47. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: anticonvulsant sulfonamides incorporating valproyl and other lipophilic moieties. Masereel, B., Rolin, S., Abbate, F., Scozzafava, A., Supuran, C.T. J. Med. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  48. Identification and characterization of human neutrophil carbonic anhydrase. Campbell, A.R., Andress, D.L., Swenson, E.R. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  49. Analysis of carbonic anhydrase in human red Blood cells using capillary electrophoresis/ electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Moini, M., Demars, S.M., Huang, H. Anal. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  50. Carbonic anhydrase antibody in sera from patients with endometriosis. Kiechle, F.L., Quattrociocchi-Longe, T.M., Brinton, D.A. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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