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PGP  -  phosphoglycolate phosphatase

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of PGP


High impact information on PGP


Biological context of PGP

  • The results show that APKD is closely linked to the PGP locus on the short arm of chromosome 16 (16p13----p12), which is consistent with the previously reported linkage both to PGP and to the alpha globin locus [7].
  • The genetic distance between PGP and APKD shows a maximum likelihood value of the recombination fraction at zero with a lod score of 5 X 5 [7].
  • New regional localisations for HAGH and PGP on human chromosome 16 [8].
  • The phenotypes ESD, GLO, GPT and PGP in tissues corresponded with the ones in the comparative blood samples [9].
  • It has been suggested that expression of the P-glycoprotein transmembrane efflux pump (PGP), encoded by the multi-drug resistance (MDR1) gene, may play a role in the protection of epithelial tissues from a variety of local and systemic toxins [10].

Anatomical context of PGP

  • Both HAGH and PGP were present only in cell lines containing human 16p13 [8].
  • Two diabetic patients showed elevated sweat gland PGP 9.5-IR and three had increased sweat gland vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; this may represent nerve proliferation [11].
  • No discernible change in the distribution of neuropeptide-immunoreactive axons was found, but all of the specimens from the affected areas had a significant increase in the number of intradermal PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibers compared with unaffected areas from the same patients and normal controls [12].
  • We report that in approximately 50% (6/11) of the population, MDR1 messenger RNA levels in the normal urinary epithelium are comparable to those found in the highest expressing tissues in the body, and suggest a role for PGP in the normal bladder urothelium [10].
  • Fibroblasts from a fetus with an unbalanced karyotype 46(XY), -16,+(16qter-16p13.3::4q31.1-4qter) were found to possess only one allele at the 3' hypervariable region (3'HVR) close to the alpha-globin locus and two alleles at the PGP locus [13].

Associations of PGP with chemical compounds

  • In muscles treated by ethanol the ESD, GLO, GPT and PGP enzymes were active [9].
  • Tannic acid decreased calcein efflux and the expression of PGP, MRP1 and MRP2 membrane efflux pumps [14].
  • The purified FcR corresponded to 1.5-2% of the protein present in the crude glycoprotein fraction (PGP) and showed the tendency to aggregate [15].
  • The possibility that Daunoxome (DNX), a combination of daunorubicin (DNR) with a liposomal targeting system, escapes PGP was tested [16].
  • However, human red cell PGP exhibits high (0.24 mM) and low (0.05 mM) Km values for phosphoglycolate irrespective of phenotype and this requires further analysis [17].

Regulatory relationships of PGP


Other interactions of PGP

  • Localisation of human PGP and HAGH genes to 16p13.3 [19].
  • It was found that the genetic differentiation within each province is low, and that only two systems, GPT and PGP, are significantly different between the two provinces [20].
  • The present study examines 3 latitude-correlated polymorphisms: PGP, PGM1, and AHSG [21].
  • Global CYP, CYP3A4, PGP and trough/dose levels of Tac were compared with diarrhea-free controls [22].
  • Our linkage investigation in a family material of more than 600 individuals demonstrated absence of linkage between transcobalamin II and phosphoglycolate phosphatase, which is very closely linked to hemoglobin A on chromosome 16 [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PGP


  1. Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase (PGP 9.5) is selectively present in ubiquitinated inclusion bodies characteristic of human neurodegenerative diseases. Lowe, J., McDermott, H., Landon, M., Mayer, R.J., Wilkinson, K.D. J. Pathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. A comparative study of immunohistochemical staining for neuron-specific enolase, protein gene product 9.5 and S-100 protein in neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma and other round cell tumours in children. Carter, R.L., al-Sams, S.Z., Corbett, R.P., Clinton, S. Histopathology (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. PGP 9.5, a new marker for human neuroendocrine tumours. Rode, J., Dhillon, A.P., Doran, J.F., Jackson, P., Thompson, R.J. Histopathology (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Phosphoglycolate phosphatase and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in red cells of normal and anemic subjects. Somoza, R., Beutler, E. Blood (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. The neuron-specific protein PGP 9.5 is a ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase. Wilkinson, K.D., Lee, K.M., Deshpande, S., Duerksen-Hughes, P., Boss, J.M., Pohl, J. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Innervation of the human cardiac conduction system. A quantitative immunohistochemical and histochemical study. Crick, S.J., Wharton, J., Sheppard, M.N., Royston, D., Yacoub, M.H., Anderson, R.H., Polak, J.M. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Studies of genetic linkage between adult polycystic kidney disease and three markers on chromosome 16. Watson, M.L., Wright, A.F., Macnicol, A.M., Allan, P.L., Clayton, J.F., Dempster, M., Jeremiah, S.J., Corney, G., Hopkinson, D.A. J. Med. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. New regional localisations for HAGH and PGP on human chromosome 16. Mulley, J.C., Callen, D.F. Hum. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Polymorphism of isoenzymes in preserved muscle tissues. Szczerkowska, Z. Forensic Sci. Int. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. High level expression of the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene in the normal bladder urothelium: a potential involvement in protection against carcinogens? Clifford, S.C., Neal, D.E., Lunec, J. Carcinogenesis (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunohistochemical measurements of nerves and neuropeptides in diabetic skin: relationship to tests of neurological function. Levy, D.M., Terenghi, G., Gu, X.H., Abraham, R.R., Springall, D.R., Polak, J.M. Diabetologia (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Symptoms of notalgia paresthetica may be explained by increased dermal innervation. Springall, D.R., Karanth, S.S., Kirkham, N., Darley, C.R., Polak, J.M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Human alpha-globin maps to pter-p13.3 in chromosome 16 distal to PGP. Breuning, M.H., Madan, K., Verjaal, M., Wijnen, J.T., Meera Khan, P., Pearson, P.L. Hum. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Tannic acid synergizes the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs in human cholangiocarcinoma by modulating drug efflux pathways. Naus, P.J., Henson, R., Bleeker, G., Wehbe, H., Meng, F., Patel, T. J. Hepatol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Human placental membrane receptor for IgG. Purification of the receptor and its subunit structure. Mikulska, J., Boratyński, J., Niezgódka, M., Lisowski, J. Immunol. Lett. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Liposome-encapsulated daunorubicin for PGP-related multidrug resistance. Michieli, M., Damiani, D., Ermacora, A., Masolini, P., Michelutti, A., Michelutti, T., Russo, D., Pea, F., Baccarani, M. Br. J. Haematol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Biochemical characterization of the genetic variants of human phosphoglycolate phosphatase (PGP). Turner, V.S., Hopkinson, D.A. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Activation of human gingival epithelial cells by cell-surface components of black-pigmented bacteria: augmentation of production of interleukin-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Sugiyama, A., Uehara, A., Iki, K., Matsushita, K., Nakamura, R., Ogawa, T., Sugawara, S., Takada, H. J. Med. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Localisation of human PGP and HAGH genes to 16p13.3. Mulley, J.C., Barton, N., Callen, D.F. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Genetic structures in the population of Veneto. Mamolini, E., Beretta, M., Cappellozza, G., Moncinelli, P., Scapoli, C., Barale, R., Barrai, I. Hum. Hered. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Latitude-correlated genetic polymorphisms: selection or gene flow? Ciminelli, B.M., Jodice, C., Scozzari, R., Corbo, R.M., Nahum, M., Pompei, F., Santachiara-Benerecetti, S.A., Santolamazza, C., Morpurgo, G.P., Modiano, G. Hum. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein activity and assimilation of tacrolimus in transplant patients with persistent diarrhea. Lemahieu, W., Maes, B., Verbeke, K., Rutgeerts, P., Geboes, K., Vanrenterghem, Y. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Indication against genetic localisation of the human transcobalamin II gene (TC2) on chromosome 16. Gallmann, M., Fràter-Schröder, M., Scheffrahn, W., Ott, J., Schmid, B., Bütler, E., Biedermann, V., Kierat, L. Clin. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Synthesis and characterization of deoxy analogues of diphytanylglycerol phospholipids. Stewart, L.C., Kates, M., Smith, I.C. Chem. Phys. Lipids (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Resolution of human mercapt- and nonmercaptalbumin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Sogami, M., Nagoka, S., Era, S., Honda, M., Noguchi, K. Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Genetic markers in a Malaysian population: variants of uridine monophosphate kinase (UMPK), phosphoglycolate phosphatase (PGP) and pancreatic amylase (AMY2). Zarinah, K.H., Abdullah, F., Tan, S.G. Ann. Hum. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Formal genetics of phosphoglycolate phosphatase (PGP): investigation on 272 mother-child pairs. Amorim, A., Siebert, G., Ritter, H., Kömpf, J. Hum. Genet. (1980) [Pubmed]
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